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Full text of "Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh"

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TRANSACTION S 



OP THE 



ROYAL SOCIETY 



OF 



EDINBURGH. 



VOL. XXXIV. 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 



BY 



ALEXANDER BUCHAN, LL.D. 




EDINBURGH: 

PUBLISHED BY ROBERT GRANT & SON, 107 PRINCES STREET, 
AND WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 14 HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON. 



MDCCCXC. 
Price Two Guineas. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OP THE 



KOYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUKGH. 



tf./f. C.3U. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



ROYAL SOCIETY 



OF 



EDINBURGH. 



VOL. XXXIV. 






%Z^v& 



EDINBURGH: 

PUBLISHED BY BOBEET GRANT & SON, 107 PRINCES STREET, 
AND WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 14 HENRIETTA STREET, CO VENT GARDEN, LONDON. 



MDCCCXC. 



^Transactions of tbe 1Ro\>al Society of j£oinburob. 



THE 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 



BY 

ALEXANDER BUCHAN, LL.D., 

SECRETARY OF THE SCOTTISH METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



FORMING VOL. XXXIV. OF 
THE TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 




EDINBUEGH: 

PUBLISHED BY ROBERT GRANT & SON, 107 PRINCES STREET, 

AND WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 14 HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON. 



MDCCCXC. 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 



BY THE 



COUNCIL OF THE SCOTTISH METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



The whole responsibility of erecting and equipping the Observatories and carrying 
on the Observations on Ben Nevis was undertaken by the Scottish Meteorological 
Society ; and the management of the Scientific work was placed in the Council of 
the Society, along with representatives appointed by the Royal Society of London, 
the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and the Philosophical Society of Glasgow, which 
together constitute the Directors of the Observatories. 

The Council of the Scottish Meteorological Society have been enabled to publish 
this account of the Meteorology of Ben Nevis by the liberality of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh, as the Scottish Meteorological Society has no funds at its disposal 
for the purpose. The publication forms Vol. XXXIV. of the Royal Society's 
Transactions, and consists of the detailed Hourly Observations made at the Ben 
Nevis Observatory and the five Daily Observations at Fort- William, from December 
1, 1883, to December 31, 1887, and prefaced by a Report by Dr Buchan, Secretary 
of the Scottish Meteorological Society, on the Meteorology of Ben Nevis, based on 
these Observations. 

The reasons which led to the establishment of this High Level Observatory 
and the tentative steps taken preliminary to the raising of the funds for the 
erection of the buildings are detailed in pages ii. and iii. of the Report. An 
appeal to the public for funds was made early in 1883, and, mainly by the great 
personal exertions of members of a Committee of the Council of the Scottish 
Meteorological Society,* the necessary funds were soon collected,t the Observatory 
was built, and the regular Hourly Observations were begun in the end of 
November of that year. 

* This Committee, called the Building Committee, consisted of John Murray, Convener, D. Milne Home 
of Milne-Graden, Thomas Stevenson, James Sanderson, Arthur Mitchell, Alexander Buchan. 
t See Subscription List appended. 



iv INTRODUCTORY NOTE. 

It was contemplated from the commencement to establish as soon as practicable, 
as a constituent part of this system of Observations, a Low-Level Observatory at 
Fort- William, at which Hourly Observations should be made similar to those made 
at the top of the mountain, but want of funds rendered it impossible to carry this 
proposal into effect for some years. But a legacy of £500 from the late R. M. 
Smith, Esq., and a donation of £1000 from the Association of the Edinburgh 
International Exhibition of 1886, enabled the Society to carry out this desired object. 
Accordingly a first-class Meteorological Observatory has been erected in Fort- 
William, the self- registering instruments for which were supplied by the Meteoro- 
logical Council. At the same time a Station, similar in all respects to the Society's 
other Stations, has also been established within the grounds of the Observatory, 
the instruments in this case being furnished by the Scottish Meteorological Society. 
This Low-Level Observatory was completed on July 14, 1890, and the regular 
Hourly Observations were forthwith commenced. 

The following are the present staff of the two Observatories : — Messrs R. T. 
Omond, F.R.S.E., Superintendent; Angus Rankin, First Assistant ; James Miller, 
Second Assistant ; S. Nisbet, Third Assistant ; and William Stewart, Road 
Overseer and Storekeeper. The Directors take this opportunity of expressing their 
sense of the great services rendered to the Observatory by Mr Omond and the other 
members of the staff, who have carried on the laborious and trying work of making 
hourly eye-observations in all weathers, by night as well as by day, — a work 
attempted nowhere else, — with an intelligence, enthusiasm, and completeness which 
leave nothing to be desired. The Directors desire to record their great indebtedness 
and cordial thanks to Messrs H. N. Dickson, F.R.S.E. ; A. Drysdale, M.A. ; 
C. Gray, V.S. ; W. Hay; A. J. Herbertson ; J. M'Donald, M.A. ; Professor A. C. 
Mitchell, D.Sc, F.R.S.E. ; R. C. Mossman, and R. Turnbull, who have from time 
time given their services gratuitously as observers in relief of the staff. 

A financial statement of the funds of the Ben Nevis Observatory, from 1883 to 
the commencement of the present year, is appended,* from which it is seen that 
£11,989, 18s. 5d. have been received from all sources by the Council for the 
purposes of the Observatories. Since then £316, 17s. have been received, making 
in all £12,306, 15s. 5d. On the other hand, since January last the expenditure has 
been £1422, 15s. Id., the sums expended being chiefly connected with the com- 
pleting and equipping of the Low-Level Observatory, which has cost about £1700. 
The accounts now show a deficit of £579, 10s. 7d., with £344, 17s. 8d. of out- 

* Page vii. 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE. v 

standing accounts, making in all a sum of nearly £1000 to be provided for within 
the next few months. The annual cost connected with carrying on the observa- 
tories is estimated at £800. 

The value of the scientific results hitherto obtained are clearly stated by Dr 
Buchan, and have been freely recognised by meteorologists throughout the world. 
There is the very highest expectation that the double sets of Observations of this 
now completed system will yield data vitally and essentially important in investi- 
gating various problems presented by Meteorology, including storms and other 
weather changes. It is estimated that to carry on this great undertaking for the 
next five years, a sum of £2000 will be required, in addition to the present 
income at the disposal of the Directors, and the Council of the Society believe that 
the liberality of the public will not be wanting to put them in the position of 
being able to carry on this great national work to a successful termination. 

Arthur Mitchell, Hon. Secretary. 
James Sanderson, Hon. Treasurer. 
John Murray, Convener of Building Committee. 



Scottish Meteorological Society, 
122 George Street, Edinburgh, 
15th December 1890. 



VI 



LIST OF DIRECTORS. 



LIST OF THE DIRECTORS OF THE BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY 

March 1890. 

The List consists of the Office-Bearers of the Scottish Meteorological Society ; 
Professor Tait and Professor Chrystal, Representatives of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh ; Sir William Thomson, Representative of the Royal Society of London ; 
Dr Muirhead, Representative of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow. 

President. 
HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF RICHMOND AND GORDON, E.G. 

Vice-President. 
D. MILNE HOME OF MILNE-GRADEN, LL.D., F.R.S.E. 



Council. 



James Geikib, LL.D., F.R.SS. L. and E, F.G.S., 
Professor of Geology, University of Edinburgh. 

John Aitken, F.R.SS. E. and L, Darroch, Falkirk. 

J. G. M'Kendrick, M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.P.E., 
F.R.SS. L. and E., Professor of Institutes of 
Medie.ine, University of Glasgow. 

J. B. Russell, M.D., Medical Officer of Health, 
Glasgow. 

Sir James D. Marwick, LL.D., F.R.S.E, Town- 
Clerk, Glasgow. 

John Murray, LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S.E., Director 
of the Challenger Expedition Commission, 
Edinburgh. 

J. Y. Buchanan, F.R.SS. L. and E., Chemist and 
Physicist, Challenger Expedition. 

James A. Wenley, F.R.S.E., Treasurer, Bank of 
Scotland, Edinburgh. 

John Chiene, M.D., F.R.C.S.E., F.R.S.E, Pro- 
fessor of Surgery, University of Edinburgh. 

Robert Cox, M.A., F.R.S.E., Gorgie. 

The Hon. Lord M'Laren, LL.D., F.jP.R.S.E, 
Edinburgh. 



A. Crum Brown, M.D., F.R.C.P.E, F.R.SS. L. 
and E., Professor of Chemistry, University of 
Edinburgh. 

Archibald Geikie, LL.D., F.R.SS. L. and E., 
F.G.S., Director-General of the Geological 
Survey of the United Kingdom. 
William Thomson, LL.D., P.R.S., Hon. 
F.P.R.S.E., Professor of Natural Philosophy, 
University of Glasgow {ex officio). 
G. Tait, Sec. R.S.E., Professor of Natural 
Philosophy, University of Edinburgh(exo$?a'o). 
Chrystal, LL.D., F.P.R.S.E., Professor of 
Mathematics, University of Edinburgh {ex 
officio). 

Henry Muirhead, M.D., Bushy Hill, Cambuslang 
{ex officio). 

I. Bayley Balfour, M.D., D.Sc, F.R.SS. L. and 
E., Professor of Botany, University of Edin- 
burgh. 

Ralph Copeland, F.R.S.E., Astronomer-Royal for 
Scotland, and Professor of Practical Astro- 
nomy, University of Edinburgh. 



Sir 



G. 



Honorary Secretary. 
Sir Arthur Mitchell, K.C.B., M.D., LL.D., F.P.R.S.E., Commissioner in Lunacy, Edinburgh. 

Honorary Treasurer and Convener of Finance Committee. 
James Sanderson, F.R.C.S.E., F.R.S.E., Deputy Inspector-General of Hospitals, H.M. Madras 

Army, Edinburgh. 

Chairman of Medico-Climatological Committee. 
Sir Arthur Mitchell, K.C.B., M.D., LL.D., F.P.R.S.E., Commissioner in Lunacy, Edinburgh. 

Meteorological Secretary. 
Alexander Buchan, LL.D., F.R.S.E., Society's Chambers, 122 George Street, Edinburgh. 



ABSTRACT OF ACCOUNTS. 



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SUBSCRIPTIONS 



IN AID OP 



BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY. 



Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen, 
His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, . 
His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh, 
His Royal Highness the Duke of Albany, . 



£50 

26 5 

10 

10 



A. A. Abercromby, Ayr, .... 

The Hon. Ralph Abercromby, 21 Chapel St., London, 

Mrs Adam, Larchgrove, Shettleston, 

Adam, Sons, & Co., 135 Constitution St., Leith, 

Professor Adams, The Observatory, Cambridge, 

Addie & Sons, 144 St Vincent Street, Glasgow, 

C. J. Addington, Shopwyke House, Chichester, 

Mrs Adie, Rockville, Linlithgow, . 

Thomas H. Ainslie, Fort- William, 

Aitken & Co., Glasgow, 

Aitken & Mansell, Glasgow, 

Aitken, Liburn, & Co., Glasgow, . 

Dr Aitken, 57 Great King Street, . 

Mrs Aitken, 57 Great King Street (Collected by ) 

John Aitken, Darroch, Falkirk, 

John Aitchison & Co., Brewers, Edinburgh, 

William Aldain, Fiekley Hall, Doncaster, . 

Rev. Dr Lindsay Alexander, Musselburgh, 

David Alexander, Dundee, . 

Mrs Alexander, 7 Roseberry Crescent, Edinburgh 

Alexander Allan, 5 Hillside Crescent, Edinburgh, 

C. Allhusen, J.P., Stoke Court, Slough, . 

A. Anderson, M.D., C.B., Sunnybrae, Pitlochry, 

James Anderson, Leven, 

Charles W. Anderson, 9 Cumin Place, Edinburgh 

William R. Anderson, 

Anonymous, .... 

Anonymous, .... 

Anonymous, .... 

Sir Windham C. Anstruther, Carmichael House 

Thankerton, .... 
Miss Helen Carnegie Arbuthnott, of Balnamoon 

Forfarshire, .... 
Professor Archer, Edinburgh, 
His Grace The Duke of Argyll, K.T., 
VOL. XXXIV. 



£ 


s. 


d. 


10 








5 








1 


1 





5 


5 





2 


2 





3 


3 





1 








18 








1 


1 





5 








3 


3 





11 


1 





1 


1 





5 








28 


7 





7 


2 





7 


1 





1 








1 








2 


1 





2 








2 


2 





3 


2 





1 








1 


1 





2 


2 





50 








1 


13 





2 








5 








2 


2 





1 


1 





50 









A. B. Armitage, 14 Dick Place, Edinburgh, 
Sir William Armstrong, Cragside, Morpeth, 
J. W. Arnott, Chaplehouse, Ladybank, 
J. Walker Arnott, 24 St Bernard's Crescent, Ediu 

burgh, ..... 
Arnott & Co., Jamaica Street, Glasgow, 
Arthur & Co., Glasgow, 

E. Ashworth, Hayhill, Waterfoot, Manchester, 
W. A. Backhouse, Walsingham, 
Robert Baikie of Tankerness, M.D., 
Baine & Johnston, Greenock, 
Mrs Baird, Cambusdoon, Ayr, 
Professor J. H. Balfour, Edinburgh, 
Surgeon-General Balfour, M.D., Combe Lodge 

London, .... 

Sir George Balfour, M.P., 6 Cleveland Gardens 

London, .... 

Provost Ballingall, Dundee, 
E. B. W. Balrae, Mirneld, . 
Dr Barbour, 24 Melville Street, Edinburgh, 
George F. Barbour of Bonskeid, 
H. B. Barbour, London, 
C. Barclay, London, 

G. Barclay, Kirkmichael House, Dumfriesshire, 
Barclay, Curie, &Co., Glasgow, 
John Barclay, Paisley, 
W. H. Barlow, High Combe, Old Charlton, 
Thomas Barns, The Quinta Office, Chirk, Ruabon 
Thomas Bate, Kelstern, Flint, 
J. F. Bateman, 16 Great George Street, London, 
Edmund Baxter, 9 Rutland Square, Edinburgh, 
Mrs Baxter, 26 Drumsheugh Gardens, Edinburgh, 
Donald Beith, 43 Castle Street, Edinburgh, 
Dr Joseph Bell, Edinburgh, 
J. Lindsay Bennet, St Andrews, 



£ 


s. 


d. 


5 








25 


10 





2 


2 





3 


3 





1 








25 








1 








2 








10 








2 








3 


2 





7 


2 






1 1 



1 








1 


1 





2 


2 





1 








00 








2 


2 





1 








1 


1 





20 








2 


10 





5 








1 








1 








2 


2 





7 








2 


2 





2 








1 








10 









SUBSCRIPTIONS IN AID OF BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY. 



£ 
Bernard & Co., Leith .... 5 

Walter Berry of Glenstriven, Edinburgh, . . 5 

Mis Bevan, 4 Heriot Row, Edinburgh, . . 1 

R. A. Bevan, Horsgate, Cuckfield, Sussex, . 2 

Rev. J. G. Beveridge, The Manse, Musselburgh, . 1 
James B. Bevington, Merle Wood, Seven Oaks, Kent, 1 
A .M. Black, Campie, Musselburgh, . . 1 

Messrs A. & C. Black, Edinburgh, . . .4 

Dr Black, 2 George Square, Edinburgh, . . 1 

James Black, Duntocher, . . . .10 

Sheriff Black, Stornoway, . ... 1 

W. D. Black, Row, Helensburgh, ... 5 
William Blackwood, 45 George Street, Edinburgh, 5 

J. Blaikie, 14 Viewforth Place, Edinburgh, . 1 

John Blaekie, Glasgow, . . . .10 

Wm. Blackwood, 5 Clarendon Crescent, Edinburgh, 8 
Blackwood & Gordon, Port-Glasgow, . . 5 

C. Blair, Glendarroch, Dunoon, . . .1 

Sheriff Blair, Inverness, .... 1 
Earl of Blantyre, Erskine, Glasgow, . . 21 

Edward L. J. Blyth, 2 Rothesay Terrace, Edinburgh, 5 
H. Bonar, 15 Hill Street, Edinburgh, . . 1 

Sir. W. Bowman, 5 Clifford Street, London, . . 5 
Donald Boyd, Fort- William, ... 1 

Bow, M'Lachlan, & Co., Paisley, . . .5 

Duncan S. Boyd, Paisley, .... 1 

George Boyd, Paisley, .... 1 

Isaac Braithwait, 4 Gloucester Square, London, . 10 
Dr Bremner, Streatham House, Edinburgh, . 1 

J. Brierley, Mossley Hall, Congleton, . . 1 

F. Brodie, Fernhill, Wootton Bridge, Isle of Wight, 4 
T. D. Brodie, 9 Ainslie Place, Edinburgh, . . 10 

A. J. Dennistown Brown of Balloch, Glasgow, . 2 
Alexander L. Brown, Buckholm, Galashiels, . 1 

M. M. C. Brown, Greenock, . . .1 

Professor Crum Brown, 8 Belgrave Crescent, 

Edinburgh, . . . . .10 

J. A. Brown, 14 Chester Street, Edinburgh, . 1 

J. A. Harvie Brown, Dunipace House, Larbert, . 4 
Brown & Poison, Paisley, . . . .17 

R. S. Brown, 6 Sussex Square, Loudon, . . 10 

Ex- Provost Brownlee, Dundee, . . .1 

A. Bruce, Crichton Inst, Dumfries (small sums 

collected by), ..... 1 
Bryden & Sons, 16 Frederick Street, Edinburgh, . 2 
His Grace the Duke of Buccleuch, . . .100 

James Buchanan, Oswald Road, Edinburgh, . 7 

John Young Buchanan, 10 Moray Place, Edinburgh, 60 
T. R. Buchanan, M.P., 10 Moray Place, Edinburgh, 20 
James S. Budgett, Stoke Park, Guildford, Surrey, 4 

James C. Bunton, 24 Park Circus, Glasgow, . 2 

George Wardlaw Burnett, 21 Castle St., Edinburgh, 1 
Mrs Burns, Home Bank, Bridge of Allan (small 

sums collected by), .... 6 
John Burns, Castle Wemyss, . . .60 

J. W. Burns of Kilmahew, . . . .20 

George Burt, 23 Grosvenor Road, London, . . 1 

John L. Burton, Longnor Hall, Shrewsbury, . 1 

Marquis of Bute, Mountstuart, Rothesay, . . 20 

Caird & Co. , Greenock, . . . .10 

James T. Caird, Greenock, .... 5 
William Caird, Greenock, .... 5 



s. 


d. 








5 











2 











1 











4 

















1 





























1 











1 





1 

















1 











1 

















1 











1 











1 











2 

















5 











3 











10 





1 











2 











2 

















4 





2 











10 

















1 





1 






























£ s. d. 
Edward Caird, 15 Belgrave Crescent, Edinburgh, . 10 
A. Cameron, Highfield, Elgin, . . .10 

A. C. Darling Cameron, 9 Victoria Chambers, London, 110 
A. C. Cameron, Fettercairn (small sums collected by), 12 6 
A. Campbell of Cammo, Edinburgh, . . 5 

Mrs D. A. Campbell, Barriemon, . . .210 

Dr Campbell of Craigrannoch, Ballachulish, . 5 5 

Rev. J. A. Legh Campbell, Helpston, Market 

Deeping, . . . . 12 

Sir Archibald C. Campbell, Bart, . . 10 

Sir Archibald K. Campbell, 23 Moray Place, Edin., 2 
Mrs Cameron Campbell of Monzie, . . 50 

J. A. Campbell of Stracathro, M.P., . 25 

D. S. Cargill, Glasgow, . . . .330 

Mr Cargill, Dundee, . . . .110 

Dr Carment, Edinburgh, . . . .300 

James Caimichael & Co., Dundee, . . 10 10 

Thomas Carmichael, Greenock, . . .10 

Montague Carmon, Dundee, . . .10 

D. Carnegie of Stronvan, . . . 25 

Cartsburn & Orchard Sugar Refining Co., Greenock, 2 
D. Caw, 175 West George Street, Glasgow, . 10 

W. & R. Chambers, Edinburgh, . . 24 3 

General Sir Frederick Chapman, London, . .10 

Lady Sophia Cecil, 6 Granville Place, London, . 5 5 
D. Chalmers, Redhall, Slateford, . . .430 

Professor Chiene, Edinburgh, . . .10 5 

Christie & Son, 11 St Andrew Square, Edinburgh, . 5 
Sir A. Christison, Bart., 40 Moray Place, Edinburgh, 6 
John Christison, 40 Moray Place, Edinburgh, . 6 
Professor Chrystal, Edinburgh, . . .500 

Provost Clark, Paisley, . ■ . .330 

Clark & Co., Paisley, . . . 50 

Bailie Cleghorn, Dundee, . . . 2 10 

J. Clerk, 31 Parliament Street, London, . .200 

Dr Clouston, Tipperlinn House, Edinburgh, . 2 2 

J. & P. Coats, Paisley, . . . 90 

Dr Joseph Coats, Glasgow, . . . .110 

W. & A. Coats, Paisley, . . . .110 

C. Cochrane, The Grange, Stourbridge, . . 5 5 

K. Cochrane, Elmbank, Galashiels, . . 10 

Mrs Colfox, Rax, Bridport, Dorset, . . 10 

Sir William Collins, Glasgow, . . .500 

Michael Connal, Glasgow, . . . .600 

H. Connop, Ewenry Priory, Bridgend, . . 10 

Archibald Constable, 1 Nelson Street, Edinburgh, 110 

Cooper & Brindell, Association of Underwriters, 

Glasgow, . . . . 10 10 

George Cowan, Morningside House, Edinburgh, . 7 
J. J. Cowan, 38 West Register Street, Edinburgh, 5 

James Cowan, 35 Royal Terrace, Edinburgh, . 50 

John Cowan, Beeslack, Penicuik, . . 50 

Wm. Cowan, 15 Princes Street, Edinburgh, . 2 10 

Robert Cox, 34 Drumsheugh Gardens, Edinburgh, 55 
J. T. Gibson-Craig, 24 York Place, Edinburgh, . 5 
Sir J. H. Gibson-Craig, Riccarton, Currie, . .500 

Cranston & Elliot, Edinburgh, . . .110 

Robert Crawford, Leith, . . . .500 

W. C. Crawford, 1 Lockharton Gardens, Edinburgh, 1 1 
William Crouch, C.E., 175 Hope Street, Glasgow, 7 2 

James H. Crossman, . . . .22 

A. Crum of Thornliebank, M.P., . . . 10 



SUBSCRIPTIONS IN AID OF BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY. 



XI 



Robert Crystal, Glasgow, . 

Dr Cumming, Kinellan, Edinburgh, 

James dimming, Arbroath, 

C. D. Cunningham, Edinburgh, 

D. Cunningham, Harbour Chambers, Dundee, 
George Cunningham, C.E., Glen Turret, Crieff, 
H. Cunninghame, 4 York Villas, London, . 
T. B. Curling, 27 Brunswick Square, Brighton, 
Alexander Currie, Greenock, 
James Currie & Co., 16 Bernard Street, Leith, 
William Currie, 6 Strathearn Road, Edinburgh, 
W. Cotton Curtis, Potterells, Hatfield, 

D., 

W. Ogilvy Dalgleish, Dundee, 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Dalhousie, 

Chas. Dalrymple, M.P., 5 Onslow Houses, London 

George Dalziel, Lochard Cottage, Aberfoyle (small 

sums collected by), . 
P. Davidson, Bridge of Allan, 
John Dawson, Bridge of Allan, 
Miss Dawson, Bonsyde (small sums collected by), 
Miss F. Dawson, Bousyde, Linlithgow (collected by), 
Miss Lily Dawson, Bonnytown, Linlithgow (small 

sums collected by), .... 
Miss Ramage Dawson, Palmerston Place, Edinburgh 

(small sums collected by), 
Peter Denny, Dumbarton, . 
William Denny & Brothers, Dumbarton, . 
Lady Denison, 169 Cromwell Road, London, 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby, 
His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, K.G., . 
Dr Dewar, 13 Hill Terrace, Arbroath, 
Miss A. E. Dewar, 10 George Square, Edinburgh 

(small sums collected by), 
Professor Alex. Dickson, Edinburgh, 
George Dines, Hershom, Walton-on-Thames, 
Thomas H. Dixon, Gresford, Denbigh, 
Rev. W. Dobie, Ladykirk, . 
Don Brothers, Buist, & Co., Dundee, 

D. Doncaster, jun., Broomhall Park, Sheffield, 
W. H. Maitland Dougall, Scotscraig, Tayport, Fife 
Miss Dove, St Leonards, St Andrews, 

E. Theodore Dowson, Geldeston, Suffolk, . 
Samuel Drew, 10 Laura Place, Bath, 
John Dryborough, 15 Coates Crescent, Edinburgh 
Patrick Dudgeon of Cargen, 
Bailie Duff, Greenock, 
Miss C. Duffin, Strandtown Lodge, Strandtown, 

A. Duncan, Knossington Grange, Oakham, 
Duncan & Flockhart, Edinburgh, . 
J. Barker Duncan, 6 Hill Street, Edinburgh, 
Dr Matthews Duncan, London, 
Dr Duncan, 8 Ainslie Place, Edinburgh, . 
J. W. Duncan, 29 Abercromby Place, Edinburgh, 
Robert Duncan, Port-Glasgow, 
Professor Duns, New College, Edinburgh, . 
James Dunsmure, M.D., 53 Queen St., Edinburgh 
W. A. Dykes, The Orchard, Hamilton, 
Dymock & Guthrie, George Street, Edinburgh, 
Miss Dymond, 3 Manchester Terrace, Exeter, 
Ed. Easton, Fletching, Wakefield, . 

B. Eekhout, 1 Prince's Terrace, Dowanhill, Glasgow, 



£ 


s. 


d. 


. 10 


10 





5 


1 





1 








3 


3 





7 


2 





1 








3 


2 





2 


2 





6 








40 








2 


1 





1 


1 





2 


2 





. 10 








. 20 








, 1 

1 








1 

1 








1 








2 


2 





4 


5 





1 


10 






1 8 



2 


7 


6 


. 20 








40 








1 


1 





. 50 








. 100 








1 








11 

1 


15 





. 15 








1 


1 





2 


2 





2 


2 





. 15 


10 





2 


2 





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1 








2 


2 





1 








1 








5 








1 








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. 10 








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5 








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3 


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', io 









Lord Provost and Town Council of Edinburgh, 

Edinburgh International Exhibition, 1886, 

Edinburgh and Leith Shipping Co., 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Eglinton, 

William Elder Ellerton, Grange Loan, Edinburgh 

Sir Walter Elliot of Wolfelee, K.S.I., Hawick, 

Thomas Ellis, Bridge of Allan, 

T. W. Evans, 2 Queen Anne's Gate, London, 

Professor Everett, Queen's College, Belfast, 

Professor Cossar Ewart, Edinburgh, 

Archibald Orr Ewing of Ballikinrain, M.P., 

H. E. Crum Ewing of Strathleven, Ardincapl 

Castle, Helensburgh, . 
Captain Fagan, H.M.S. Warrior, . 
Dr Andrew Fergus, Glasgow, 
Ferguson & Sons, Bridge of Allan, 
Miss M. H. Ferguson, Albyn Place, Aberdeen (small 

sums collected by), 
William Ferguson of Kinmundy, 
R. M. Ferguson, Ph.D., 12 Moray Place, Edinburgh 
Major Fielden, M. P., London, 

E. Fiddes, 1 Queen Road, Aberdeen, 
R. Field, 5 Cannon Bow, London, . 
J. R. Findlay, 3 Rothesay Terrace, Edinburgh, 
Miss Susan Stirling Findlay, 3 Rothesay Terrace 

(small sums collected by), 
J. Finlayson, Merchiston, Johnstone, 
The Worshipful Company of Fishmongers, London 
W. L. Fischer, St Andrews, 
G. F. Fitzgerald, 40 Trinity College, Dublin, 
Dr Fleming, 8 Napier Road, Edinburgh, . 
J. S. Fleming, 16 Grosvenor Crescent, Edinburgh, 
Robert Fleming, Dundee, . 
Mrs Forbes of Culloden, Inverness, 
Peter Forbes, 188 St Vincent Street, Glasgow, 
Sir John Fowler, Braemore, 
John Fraser, 13 Moray Place, Edinburgh, . 
Patrick Allan Fraser, Arbroath, 
Dr Fraser, Paisley, .... 

F. Frew, 166 Buchanan Street, Glasgow, . 
A Friend, C. S., R.S., 

A Friend, Dundee .... 

A Friend, ..... 

A Friend, Port-Glasgow, 

A Friend, Port-Glasgow, 

Fulton & Sons, Glenfield, . 

A. Fulton, 86 George Street, Edinburgh, . 

J. Fulton, Clinton Road, Edinburgh, 

Dr Andrew Fyfe, 42 Montpelier Square, London, 

H. M. Fyfe, Clyde Place, Glasgow, 

Miss F. Gair, The Kilns, Falkirk (collected by), 

Professor Gairdner, Glasgow, 

A. Galloway, Tighnault, Aberfeldy, 

C. Gardiner, Union Bank, Glasgow, 

J. Nielson Gardner, Paisley, 

William Gardner, Glasgow, 

Archibald Galbraith, Milngavie, 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Galloway, 

William Garnett, Low Moor, Clitheroe, 

H. Chandos Pole-Gell, Hopton Hall, Wirksworth, 

E. Gibb, 57 Buchanan Street, Glasgow, 

Alexander Gibson, Advocate, Edinburgh, . 



£ s. d. 

152 10 

957 11 2 

10 

25 

5 













10 10 

20 

5 

1 1 

3 3 

10 



3 13 6 

5 

4 

2 






4 



10 

1 13 6 

5 o 



26 
1 
1 
3 
3 
1 
5 
5 
5 
5 
1 
1 



5 















1 
10 



1 

10 

10 

5 

1 1 

18 



1 10 

5 5 

5 5 

10 

10 

5 

5 



10 
3 





2 

3 



Xll 



SUBSCRIPTIONS IN AID OF BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY. 



G. Gibson & Co,, 64 Commercial Street, Leitli, 
Gillespie & Catlicart, Leith 

D. Gillespie of Mountquhanie, Cupar, 
Patrick Gillespie, 27 Bernard Street, Leitli, 
John Gillon & Co., Leith, . 

J. H. Gladstone, 1 7 Pembridge Square, London, 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Glasgow, 

Glasgow Underwriters' Association, 

Sir Thomas Gladstone of Fasque, . 

Mrs Lake Gloag, Edinburgh, 

John F. Gordon, London, . 

Alexander Gourlay, Brought} 7 Ferry, 

Gourlay Brothers, Dundee, 

J. C. Graham, Islay, 

Sir John Grant, Rothiemurchus, Aviemore, 

Earl Granville, Foreign Office, London, 

Professor Grant, Glasgow, . 

Alexander Gray, Clifton, Bristol, . 

Alexander Gray, 25 Greenhill Road, London, 

E. A. Stuart Gray, Kinfauns Castle, Perth, 

C. Greaves, 19 Surrey Street, London, 
Magistrates & Town Council, Greenock, 
Walter Grieve, Greenock, . 

John Grieve, M.D., Glasgow, 

J. & A. D. Grimmond, Dundee, 

Sir G. Waldie Griffiths, Bart. , Kelso, 

John Guild, Dundee, 

J. Wyllie Guild, 65 St Vincent Street, Glasgow, 

Dr Gunning, .... 

Mrs Had wen, Bel Blair, 

W. H. Haig, Broomfield, Davidson's Mains, 

Claud Hamilton, Preston House, Dalkeith, 

Robert Hampson, The Glassert, Aberfoyle, 

Anthony Hannay, Glasgow, 

J. Hardie, 18 Renfield Street, Glasgow, 

H. C. Hardy, Fletching, . 

John Hargreaves, Maiden Erlegh, Reading, 

J. P. Harrington, 3 South Hanover Street, Glas 

gow, ..... 
Dr Harris, Heeme, Worthing, 
W. J. Harris, 26 Marine Parade, Worthing, 
W. Harvie of Brownlee, Carluke, . 
Admiral Sir John D. Hay, Bart., M.P., London, 
John Harvie, Dundas Hill, 
W. J. Hay of Duns Castle, 
James Hedderwick, Citizen Office, Glasgow, 
Professor Heddle, St Andrews, 
G. Hedley, Burnhopeside, Durham, 
Alexander Henderson, Dundee, 
John Henderson, Crown Terrace, Glasgow, 
Henderson Brothers, "Anchor" Line, 

D. & W. Henderson & Co., Glasgow, 

Miss Maggie Henderson, Castle Hill, Ayr (col 

lected by), .... 
P. Henderson & Co., Glasgow, 
C. A. Hendry, Inverness, . 
Isaac Anderson Henry, Hay Lodge, Trinity, 
Robert Herdman, St Bernard's, Bruntsfield Cres 

cent, Edinburgh, 
Professor Herdman, University College, Liverpool, 
Charles II. Higgina, Alfred House, Birkenhead, 
Miss Hill, 17 Ileriot Row, Edinburgh, 



£ 


s. 


d. 


6 


6 





2 


2 





1 








1 


1 





2 


2 





10 


10 





10 








50 








5 








1 








1 


1 





1 


1 





5 








1 








5 








5 








2 


2 





2 








2 








15 








10 


10 





10 








5 








4 


4 





15 


10 





5 








1 


1 





5 








100 








1 


1 





1 


1 





7 








2 


2 





3 


3 





1 








1 








4 


2 






2 



3 



3 
2 


10 10 

5 

40 

40 



15 








20 








1 


1 





5 








2 


2 





1 








1 


1 





1 









£ s. d. 



James H. Hindle, 67 Avenue Parade, Accrington, 

Lancashire, . 
Matthew Hodgart, Paisley, . 
A. W. Hogg, Greenock, 
Samuel Hollins, Sion House, Stourbridge, . 
D. Milne Home of Milne-Graden, Coldstream, 
Miss Georgina Milne Home, do., 
Miss Susan Milne Home, do., 
Miss G. Milne Home, do. , . 
Lieut.-Col. Milne Home of Wedderburn, M.P., 
The Earl of Home, Douglas Castle, Lanark, 
James Hope, 42 Charlotte Square, Edinburgh, 
Earl of Hopetoun, .... 
John Hope, 31 Moray Place, Edinburgh, . 
Mrs Horn, 7 Randolph Crescent, Edinburgh, 
Capt. Hotham, R.N., C.B., Milne-Graden, Cold 

stream, ..... 
William Houldsworth, Mount Charles, Ayr, 
G. L. Houston, Johnstone Castle, 
Dr Howden, Sunnyside, Montrose, 
Alexander Howe, W.S., 17 Moray Place, Edin 

burgh, ..... 
Henry Hudson, M.D., Glenville, Fermoy, . 
W. Hume, 1 Lothian Street, Edinburgh, . 
James Hunter, Drylaw House, 
Robert Hunter, 10 Ainslie Place, Edinburgh, 
Professor Huxley, London, . 
Sir H. D. Ingleby, Ripley Castle, Yorkshire, 
Charles S. Inglis, 12 Dick Place, Edinburgh 

(small sums collected by), 
The Right Hon. John Inglis, Lord Justice 

General, Edinburgh, 
John Inglis & Sons, Leith, . 
Magistrates and Council of Inverness, 
Miss Ivory, St Roque, Edinburgh, . 
Professor Jack, Glasgow, 
Major R. Jackson, St Andrews, 
Jaffe Brothers & Co., Dundee, 
R. Jardine, M. P., Castlemilk, Lockerbie, . 
David Jeffrey, 14 Randolph Crescent, Edinburgh, 
Charles Jenner, Easter Duddingston, 
Sir W. Johnston, Kirkhill House, Gorebridge, 
W. A. K. Johnston, Edinburgh, 
William Jolly, Pollokshields, Glasgow, 
Dr Joule, 12 Wardle Road, Sale, Manchester, 
P. Joynson, Altsheith, Aberfoyle, . 
F. T. R. Kennedy of Dunure, Dalquharran, May 

bole, Ayrshire, 
James Keillor & Co. , Dundee, 
John Kennedy, 71 Great King Street, Edinburgh, 
R. Ker, Milngavie, .... 
T. R. Ker, Milngavie, 
James King of Levernholm, 
Lord Provost King, Glasgow, 
The Royal Burgh of Kinghorn, 
Stephen P. Kinnaird, 17 Kensington Palaci 

Gardens, London, 
C. G. H. Kinnear, 12 Grosvenor Cresc. , Edinburgh 
Lord Kinnear, 2 Moray Place, 
C. G. H. Kinnear, 12 Grosvenor Cresc, Edinburgh 
Town Council of Kirkcaldy, 
John Kirkhope, 22 Queensferry Street, Edinburgh, 



1 


1 





2 


10 





1 








1 








195 








1 








1 








1 








1 








10 








1 


1 





5 








10 








2 








1 


1 





55 








2 


2 





1 








10 








7 








1 


1 





1 


1 





8 








2 


2 





5 









3 



10 








1 


1 





10 








1 








5 


5 





2 


2 





5 


5 





20 








50 








108 


3 





3 


2 





8 








1 


1 





2 


2 





2 








2 








10 


10 





4 


3 





5 








2 








2 


2 





10 








2 


2 





1 


1 





1 








4 








1 


1 





2 


2 





9 


2 






SUBSCRIPTIONS IN AID OF BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY. 



Xlll 



£ s. d. 



J. Kirkpatrick, M.D., 22 Magdala Crescent, Edin- 
burgh, ..... 

Z. R. K. (small sums collected by), 

Dr Knott, 2 Lauriston Park, Edinburgh, . 

Anderson Kirk wood, LL.D., Glasgow, 

John Kirsop, Glasgow, 

David Laidlaw, Skelmorlie, 

J. W. Laidlaw of SeaclifFe, . 

A. B. Laird, 17 Frederick Street, Edinburgh, 

J. Laird, Port-Glasgow, 

Miss Lake, Edinburgh, 

J. Lamont of Knockdow, Argyll, . 

Professor Scott Lang, St Andrews, . 

J. Law, 41 Heriot Row, Edinburgh, 

Law & Co., Glasgow, 

Edwin Lawrence, 10 Kensington Palace Garden 
London, .... 

Mrs Leckie, 4 Gayfield Square, Edinburgh, 

Miss C. Leckie, 4 Gayfield Square, Edinburgh, 

Alex. H. Lee, Blairhoyle, Stirling, 

Dr Lees, 12 Morningside Place, Edinburgh, 

James Lees, Oatlands, Galashiels, . 

General Lefroy, 82 Queen's Gate, London, . 

John Leitch, Greenock, 

A. Leith of Treefield, Marine House, Banff, 

Bailie Leith, Greenock, 

Magistrates and Council of Leith, . 

Leith Dock Commission, 

James Leslie, C.E., 2 Charlotte Square, Edinburgh 

J. & A. Leslie & Reid, 72 George St., Edinburgh 

D. Lester, 58 Renfield Street, Glasgow, 

C. Lindsay, Ridge Park, Lanark, . 
Little & Co., Buchanan Street, Glasgow, . 
Liverpool & Hamburg Steamship Co., 
Colin Livingston, Fort- William, 
J. Livingstone, 8 Strathearn Road, 
Captain W. Elliot Lockhart of Borthwick Brae, 
The Court of Common Council, City of London, 
London & Edinburgh Shipping Co., 
Peter Loney, Marchmont, Duns (collected by), 
Captain S. Long, Broomtield House, Hertford, 
Colonel Longstaff, Wimbledon, 
Dr Lorn, 27 Drummond Place, Edinburgh, 
John Love, Greenock, 
Andrew Lowson, Arbroath, 

D. Lumsden, Pitcairnfield, Perth, . 
L. Lyell, Kinnordy, Kirriemuir, 
Abram Lyle & Sons, Greenock, 
John Lyle & Sons, Greenock, 
H. Lyon, 24 Forth Street, Edinburgh, 
W. M Auslane, Musselburgh (small sums collected by), 
D. MacBrayne, Hope Street, Glasgow, 
John M. M'Candlish, 27 Drumsheugh Gardens 

Edinburgh, .... 
G. M'Callum, Rosebank, Cambuslang, 
Treasurer M'Cann, Greenock, 
A. S. M'Clelland, C.A., Glasgow, . 
William M'Clure, Greenock, 
Councillor Maconie, Greenock, 
W. R. M'Dirmid, 8 Palmerston Place, Edinburgh 
Macdonald, Hutchison, & Co., Greenock, . 
D. P. MacDonald, Invernevis, Fort- William, 



2 


1 





1 


5 





2 


2 





. 25 








2 


2 





. 15 








. 100 








1 








1 








1 








5 








1 








1 








1 








5 








3 


3 





1 


1 





3 


3 





6 


1 





2 


2 





2 


2 





1 








3 


2 





1 








19 


14 





. 60 








i, 17 


5 





5 








1 








1 








5 








. 25 








1 


1 





3 


1 





1 


1 





26 


5 





45 








6 








1 


1 





5 








4 


2 





1 








1 








5 








10 








1 








1 








2 


1 





by), l 








. 20 








5 








1 








1 








5 








1 








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1 


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2 








6 


1 






W. K. Macdonald, Town Clerk, Arbroath, 

John M'Donnell, M.D., 32 Upper Fitzwilliam 

Street, Dublin, 
James M'Douall, Logan, Stranraer, 
D. Macdougall, Greenock, . 
G. R. M'Dougall, Greenock, 
W. M'Ewan, 4 Manor Place, Edinburgh, . 
J. F. Macfarlane & Co., 17 North Bridge, Edinburg 
J. Macfie, 14 Hope Terrace, Edinburgh, 
David J. Macfie, Borthwick Hall, Heriot, . 
Robert Macfie of Airds, 
R. A. Macfie of Dreghorn, 
M'Gregor, Thomson, & Co., Glasgow, 
Councillor Macgregor, Greenock, 
J. Macgregor, Greenock, 

Rev. Dr Macgregor, 11 Cumin Place, Edinburgh, 
Councillor M'Innes, Greenock, 
Lieut-Colonel M'Inroy, The Burn, Brechin, 
Jas. B. M'Intosh, 11 Dean Park Crescent, Edinbur< 
Dr Macintyre, Fort- William, 
George G. Mackay, Grangemouth, . 
George G. Mackay, Grangemouth (small sums col 

lected by), .... 
John S. Mackay, Grangemouth, 
Sheriff Mackay, 7 Albyn Place, Edinburgh, 
William Mackay, Inverness, 
W. M'Kinnon & Co., Glasgow, 
Hew M'Kenraith, Greenock, 

A. K. Mackenzie, 19 Grosvenor Crescent, Edinburgh 
M'Kenzie Brothers, Paisley, 
N. B. M'Kenzie, Fort- William, 
Miss Maclagan, 28 Heriot Row, Edinburgh, 
Sir Douglas Maclagan, 28 Heriot Row, Ediuburgh 
Dr Craig Maclagan, Edinburgh, 
D. Douglas Maclagan, Edinburgh, 
Peter M'Lagan, M.P., Clifton Hall, Ratho, 
John M. Landsborough, Manningham, Bradford, 
David Maclay, 169 West George Street, Glasgow 
Lord M'Laren, Edinburgh, 

D. A. M'Laren, Grangemouth, 
P. M'Laurin, Cartside, Paisley, 
Daniel M'Leish, Fort- William, 
P. & W M'Lellan, 58 Renfield Street, Glasgow, 
Hubert M'Leod, Cooper's Hill, Staines, 
W. B. Macleod, .... 
J. Macnair, 33 Moray Place, Edinburgh, . 
Duncan Macniven, Fort- William, . 
C. J. B. M'Pherson, Bellivillie House, Kingussie, 
Hugh Macpherson, Grangemouth, . 
T. B. M 'Ritchie, 4 Gayfield Square, Edinburgh, 
Miss MacRitchie, 4 Gayfield Square, Edinburgh, 
David M'Ritchie, 4 Archibald Place, Edinburgh, 
W. E. Malcolm, Burnfoot, Langholm, 
Hugh Mair, London, 
The Lady Marjoribanks of Ladykirk, 
Miss Manson, Victoria Villa, Nairn, 
Francis Marshall, 16 Carlton Terrace, Edinburgh, 
Blyth Martin, Dundee, 

E. Martin, M.D., England, 
Lord Provost Martin, Perth, 
William Mason National Bank, Jedburgh (small 

sums collected by ), . 



£ 
1 

4 

5 

1 

1 

100 

15 

6 

4 

57 

13 

1 

1 

5 

1 

1 

5 

3 

1 

2 

1 
2 
1 
1 
10 
1 
4 
2 
1 
1 
10 
4 
1 
5 
2 
1 
9 
2 
1 
1 
10 
2 
1 
5 
1 
1 
1 
1 
3 
2 
1 
1 
5 
1 
15 
1 
1 
1 



s. d. 












10 

1 

6 

10 



o' 



1 







10 








1 

2 

1 



2 


2 





1 

1 



2 

1 



1 















1 



1 



2 1 6 



xiv 



SUBSCRIPTIONS IN AID OF BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY. 



Siv James D. Marwick, Town Clerk, Glasgow, 

Edward Mawley, London, . 

Dr Meikle, Crieff, . 

Henry Mellisk, Hodsock Priory, Worksop, 

A Member, ..... 

J. Menzies, Benavie, Fort- William, 

Allan Miller, Fort- William, 

James Miller & Sons, Leith, 

O. G. Miller, Dundee, 

Sir W. Miller of Manderston, 

T. P. Miller, The Cairns, Cambuslang, Glasgow, 

William Miller, 59 George Square, Edinburgh, 

R. Milne, Woodhill, St Andrews, . 

Admiral Sir Alex. Milne, Bart, G.C.B., Inveresk, 

John Milne, Milton House, Edinburgh, 

J. B. Mirlees, Glasgow, 

Sir Arthur Mitchell, 34 Drummond Place, Edin 

burgh, ..... 
Sydney Mitchell, 122 George Street, Edinburgh, 
George Moffat, 136 Buchanan Street, Glasgow, 
Dr Moir, Castle Street, Edinburgh, 
Richard Moller, Manchester, 
Provost Moncur, Dundee, . 
Colonel Moncrieff, London, 
Lord Moncreiff, 15 Great Stuart Street, Edinburgh, 
Dean Montgomery, 17 Athol Crescent, Edinburgh, 
J. C, Moore, Corswall, Stranraer, . 
John W. Moore, M.D., 40 Fitzwilliam Square, 

Dublin, .... 

Earl of Moray, .... 

Morrison & Gibb, 11 Queen Street, Edinburgh, 
C. Morton, W.S., 11 Palmerston Road, Edinburgh 
James Morton, Greenock, . 
Rev. J. J. Moss, East Lydford, Somerset, . 
John Muir, Banker, Arbroath, 
A. Erskine Muirhead, Crossmyloof, Glasgow (col 

lected by), .... 
Dr Henry Muirhead, Bushy Hill, Cambuslang, 
R. Muirhead, Joppa, Portobello, 
Professor Muirhead, 4 Drumsheugh Gardens, Edin 

burgh, ..... 
R. W. Munro, Granville Works, London, . 
James Murdoch, Port-Glasgow, 
John Murdoch, Fort-William, 
Murray, Beith, & Murray, W.S., 43 Castle Street 

Edinburgh, .... 
A. Graham Murray, 7 St Colme Street, Edinburgh 
David Murray, 169 West George Street, Glasgow, 
John Murray, "Challenger" Office, Edinburgh, 
T. G. Murray, 11 Randolph Crescent, Edinburgh, 
George C. Myers, Town Clerk, Montrose, . 
John Napier, 23 Portman Square, London, 
J. S. Napier, 8 Grosvenor Street, Edinburgh, 
R, Asshetor Napier, Glasgow, 
Councillor Neill, Greenock, 
George D. Neill, Greenock, 
R. P. Neill, Greenock, 
W. J. Neill, Greenock, 

Thomas Nelson & Sons, Parkside, Edinburgh, 
R. S. Newall, Jerndene, Gateshead-on-Tyne, 
.Mrs Nichol, lluntly Lodge, Edinburgh, . 
Sir Molyneux Nepean, 



£ 


s. 


d. 


10 


5 





1 


1 





1 








22 








1 








2 


2 





1 








10 








1 


1 





100 








20 








1 








5 








20 







6 


1 





10 









10 
1 1 



1 

1 

5 

2 



80 

1 1 

10 



10 

50 

4 

5 
2 

10 

10 



4 

12 

2 



41 
5 5 



3 16 



1 

2 2 
10 
1 



9 5 
1 



12 


2 





5 








5 








1 


1 





2 


2 





1 








1 








2 








1 








1 








1 








60 








5 








14 


4 





1 









C. Neute, 4 Victoria Street, London, 

John Noble, Park Place, Henley-on-Thames, 

Captain F. M. Norman, Chievot House, Berwick, 

Professor Odling, Oxford, . 

Miss Ogilvie, 18 Buckingham Terrace, Edinburgh, 

W. Ogilvie, 1 Doune Terrtice, Glasgow, 

R. D. Oliphant, Greenock, . 

W. R. Oliphant, Greenock, 

Mrs Omond, 43 Charlotte Square, Edinburgh, 

R. T. Omond, Ben Nevis Observatory, 

Orrock & Sons, Edinburgh, 

T. L. Paterson, Greenock . 

R. W. Cochrane-Patrick, M.P., 

Dr Liston Paul, Queensborough Terrace, London, 

D. Bruce Peebles, Tay House, Bonnington, Edin 

burgh, . . 

J. Grant Peterkin of Grange, Forres, 
Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh, . 
A. Pirie, Eyemouth (collected by, from 112 person; 

in sums varying from 5s. to ^d.), 
Rev. David Playfair, 8 Greenhill Park, Edinburgh 
Henry D. Pochin, Bodnaut Hall, Conway, 
John M. Pollock, Greenock, 
Thomas Prentice, Greenock, 
J. Prestwick, 35 St Giles', Oxford, . 
W. J. Pritchard, Charlton House, Ludwell, Salis 

bury, ..... 
M. R. Pryor, 12 Great Winchester Street, London 
Robert Pryor, London, 
S. R. Pryor, London, 
Dr A. Pullar, Merchiston, Edinburgh, 
Edmund Pullar, Bridge of Allan, . 
James F. Pullar, Rosebank, Perth, 
John Pullar, Brae Lodge, Bridge of Allan, 
Laurence Pullar, The Lea, Bridge of Allan, 
Robert Pullar of Tayside, Perth, 
J. Purser, Queen's Cottage, Belfast, 
W. T. Radford, M.D., Sidmouth, . 
Dr Rae, Stockbridge, 

Richard Raimes, Bonnington Park, Edinburgh, 
W. Surtees Raine, 9 St John's Terrace, Weymouth 
C. J. Ramsay, Greenock, 
Sir J. Ramsden, Ardvirikie, Kingussie, 
Sir J. Ramsden of Barrow . 
John Ramsay of Kildalton, M. P., . 
James Rankin, M. P., Bryngwyn, . 
Eev. Francis Redford, Silloth, 
G. Redpath, 7 Morton Street, Leith, 
J. Reid, C.E. , Rosemount, Edinburgh, 
Prof. Reilly, Royal College of Science, Dublin, 
C. Bine Renshaw, Barochan, Houston, 
C. Bine Renshaw, Barochan, Houston (small sums 

collected by), .... 
J. Hall Renton, 39 Park Lane, London, 
W. Renwick, Milne-Graden (small sums collected by), 
Adam B. Richardson, 16 Coates Crescent, Edin 

burgh, ..... 
J. Richardson & Co. , Greenock, 
Ralph Richardson, W.S., Edinburgh, 
Dr Peel Ritchie, 1 Melville Crescent, Edinburgh 
His Grace the Duke of Richmond and Gordon 

E.G., 



s. d. 
1 




1 
1 
2 

2 



1 

90 

50 

110 

1 

1 1 

2 

110 

5 

52 10 



6 1 

1 

3 3 
1 
1 



1 
1 



1 

2 2 

4 4 
35 10 

3 3 

5 5 
150 

2 2 








1 

10 10 

10 

3 

3 

1 

2 





25 

3 6 
10 

1 1 6 

4 4 

5 
10 

2 

100 



SUBSCRIPTIONS IN AID OF BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY. 



XV 



Dr Argyll Robertson, 18 Charlotte Square, Edin 

burgh, ..... 
R. W. Robertson, Greenock, 
Robertson & Orchar, Dundee, 
Ex-Provost Robertson, Dundee, 
William Robsou, 8 George Street, Edinburgh, 
SI. E. Robinson, 6 Park Circus, Glasgow, . 
John Rodger, Greenock, 

J. J. Rogerson, Merchiston Castle, Edinburgh, 
John Romanes, 7 Nelson Street, Edinburgh, 
R. Romanes of Harryburn, Lauder, 
James Ronald, 3 Little Law Lane, London, 
Dr Edward Ronalds, Bonnington House, Edin 

burgh, ..... 
Ronald, Jack, & Co., Paisley, 
J. W. Rose, Reedham, Great Yarmouth, . 
Hugh Rose, jun., Kilravoch Lodge, Edinburgh, 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Rosebery, 
Alexander Ross, Architect, Inverness, 
Earl Rosse, Birr Castle, Parsonstown, Ireland, 
P. Rottenburg, Holmhirst, Glasgow, 
John Roughead, Princes Street, Edinburgh, 
David Rowan, Glasgow, 

Warren De La Rue, 73 Portland Place, London, 
R. Cooper Rundell, Underwriters' Rooms, Glasgow 
W. W. Rundell, Exchange Buildings, Liverpool, 
James B. Russell, M. D. , 1 Montrose Street, Glasgow 
Dr Russell, Canaan Lane, Edinburgh, 
James Russell, Dundas Castle, 
Joseph Russell, Glasgow, 
J. G. F. Russell of Aden, . 
Professor Rutherford, Edinburgh, . 
Russell & Co., Port-Glasgow, 
Thomas Russell, Bridge of Allan, . 
Colonel Sandeman, Dundee, 
Archibald Sandeman, Garry Cottage, Perth, 
Hector Sandeman, Garry Cottage, Perth, . 
Professor Sandeman, Garry Cottage, Perth, 
Dr Sanderson, 8 Manor Place, Edinburgh, . 
Dr Sanderson, Musselburgh, 
W. A. Sanderson, Byethorne, Galashiels, . 
Frederick E. Sawyer, 53 Buckingham Place 

Brighton, .... 

Archibald S. Schaw, Park Circus, Glasgow, 
Prof. A. Schuster, Owen's College, Manchester, 
James H. Sclater, Nevich Park, Lewis, Sussex, 
Scott & Co., Greenock, 
Alexander Scott & Sons, Greenock, 
Dr Scott, Musselburgh, 

James Robson Scott of Scotch Belford, M.D., 
Mrs Corse Scott, Sinton, Hawick, . 
The Earl of Selkirk, St Mary's Isle, Kirkcud 

bright, ..... 
Bailie Shankland, Greenock, 
James Shanks, Den Iron Works, Arbroath, 
John Sharp, Dundee, 
Councillor Shearer, Greenock, 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Sheffield, 
J. B. Sherriff, Kingairloch, . 
John E. Sibbald, 8 Ettrick Road, Edinburgh, 
Dr Sibbald, 3 St Margaret's Road, Edinburgh, 
James Sibbald, do. 



£ s. d. 

110 

5 

23 13 

10 10 

10 

10 

10 



4 


4 





1 








3 








5 


5 





25 








15 








4 


4 





10 








50 








1 


1 





1 








5 








2 


2 





2 


2 





30 








1 


1 





3 


3 





4 


4 





1 


1 





5 








2 


2 





2 


2 





3 


3 





10 








1 








1 


1 





5 








1 








5 








5 








1 


1 





3 


2 





1 


1 





25 








5 


5 





1 








10 








2 








1 


1 





2 


2 





2 








25 








1 








1 








30 








1 








1 








10 








2 








1 


1 





1 


1 






£ s. d. 



Sir W. Siemens, President of the British Asso 
ciation, .... 

Sheriff Simpson, Fort-William, 

Professor Simpson, 52 Queen Street, Edinburgh, 

Sir Walter Simpson, 3 Belgrave Crescent, Edin 
burgh, ..... 

Dr Sinclair Loviston, 

William Skinner, 35 George Square, Edinburgh, 

Arthur Skivington, Greenock, 

J. Slater, junior, Greenock, 

Alexander Smith, Banker, Methlic, 

A. Gillies Smith, 35 Drumsheugh Gardens, Edin 
burgh, ..... 

Dr Angus Smith, Manchester, 

Duncan Smith, Glasgow, . 

J. Hector Smith, 33 Drumsheugh Gardens, Edin 
burgh, ..... 

Mrs Henry Smith, The Orchard, Swanley, St Mary 
Cray, .... 

J. Irvine Smith, 20 Great King Street, Edinburgh 

James Smith, Benvue, Dowanhill, Glasgow, 

Rev. C. Smith, Inveresk, Musselburgh, 

J. Turnbull Smith, C.A., 5 Belgrave Place, Edin 
burgh, ..... 

J. Chalmers Smith, St Helen's Bray, County 
Wicklow, .... 

Professor Robertson Smith, Cambridge, 

R. M. Smith, Edinburgh, . 

R. M. Smith, Edinburgh, Legacy from, 

T. Smith, Ashwood, Dundee, 

Warrington W. Smith, 5 Inverness Terrace 
London, .... 

W. Anderson Smith, Ledaig, Argyll, 

Right Hon. W. H. Smith, 3 Grosvenor Place, 
London, ..... 

Patrick Smollett of Bonhill, 

William Spottiswoode, 41 Grosvenor Place, London, 
T. B. Sprague, 29 Buckingham Terrace, Edinburgh, 

Lord Stafford, Stafford House, London, 

H. T. Stainton, Mountsfield, Lewisham, . 

Earl of Stair, Bargany, Girvan, 

W. Spenser Stanhope, Cameron Hall, Barnsley, 

John Steedman, Solicitor, Selkirk, . 

Miss Stevenson, 43 Charlotte Square, Edinburg 

(collected by), .... 
J. J. Stevenson, The Red House, London, . 
Miss L. Stevenson, 13 Randolph Crescent, Edin 

burgh, ..... 
David Stevenson, jun. , 84 George Street, Edinburgh, 
James Stevenson, Largs, 

T. Stevenson, M.I.C.E., 17 Heriot Row, Edinburg 
Miss Steven of Bellahouston, Glasgow, 
Professor Balfour Stewart, Manchester, 
John Stewart, 88 George Street, Edinburgh, 
Mark J. Stewart, Ardwell, . 
John Stewart, 1 St Andrew Square, Edinburgh, 
Captain Stewart, Sweet Hope, Musselburgh, 
James Stewart, M.P., Greenock, 
Walter Stewart, Caledonian Distillery, Edinburgh, 
Dr Stirling, Kippendavie, . 
Professor Swan, Ardchapel, Helensburgh, . 
W. Sveiubjornsson, 1 Lonsdale Terrace, Edinburgh, 



100 








1 


1 





10 


5 





1 


1 





1 








6 








1 








2 








1 


1 





5 








5 








10 









1 1 

3 2 

7 2 
110 
110 

9 4 

1 1 

2 2 
60 

500 

3 3 

2 2 

1 1 



5 

2 

5 

40 

5 

5 

15 

2 2 

10 

2 4 10 

3 

2 10 

1 1 
155 

5 

10 

2 2 



1 
3 
1 
1 

5 
1 
1 
15 
1 



1 

3 







1 
1 
5 
1 



XVI 



SUBSCRIPTIONS IN AID OF BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY. 



James Syme, British Linen Bank, Edinburgh, 

James Syme, Millbank, 

Miss M. G. Tait (small sums collected by), 

Professor Tait, Edinburgh, . 

W. A. P. Tait (small sums collected by), . 

J. W. Tawse, W.S., 23 York Place, Edinburgh, 

Taylor, Laughland, & Co., Glasgow, 

Bailie Taylor, Dundee, 

Hugh Taylor, Dowanside, Glasgow, 

Thomas Taylor, Dundee, 

Templeton & Co., Glasgow, 

G. Templeton & Sons, Glasgow, 

Sir Chas. Tennant of The Glen, 

The British Association, 

The Meteorological Council, 

A. F. Thistlethwayte, Kiuloch Lodge, Fort- William 

R. W. Thorn, Glasgow, 

Sheriff Thorns, 52 Great King Street, Edinburgh 

G. H. Thomson, M.D., Clifton, 

Professor Sir W. Thomson, Glasgow, 

Thomson, M'Gregor, & Co., Glasgow, 

T. Thomson, Exchange Buildings, Glasgow, 

Wm. Thorburn, 12 Buckingham Terrace, Edinburgh, 

Mrs Torrance, Norton House, Warrington, 

R. Jamieson Torrie, 1 Glenfinlas Street, Edinburgh 

Lord Trayner, 27 Moray Place, Edinburgh, 

Dr Treutler, Fletching, TJckfield, . 

Coutts Trotter, 17 Charlotte Square, Edinburgh, 

Commander Tufnell, Dollars House, Hurlford, 

James Tullis, Rosebank, Cambuslang, 

Lieut. -Col. Turbervill, Ewenry Priory, Bridgend, 

Andrew H. Turnbull, Whitehouse Loan, Edinburgl 

John Turnbull, 58 Frederick Street, Edinburgh, 

J. Turnbull of Abbey St Bathans, . 

Matt. J. Turnbull, M.D., Coldstream, 

Professor Turner, Edinburgh, 

Professor Tyndal, Royal Institution, London, 

The Hon. Lord Provost Ure, Glasgow, 

Andrew Usher & Co., West Nicolson Street, Edin 

burgh, ..... 
J. & J. Usher, Edinburgh, . 
G. S. Veitch, Bank of Scotland, Paisley, . 
Rev. W. Douglas Veitch, Elioch, Sanquhar, 
Miss Veitch, Elioch, Sanquhar, 
Miss Vicary, Warminster, . 
J. Walker & Co., Greenock, 
Harry Walker & Sons, Dundee, 
James Walker of Dairy, 
Lawson Walker, Greenock, 
James Wallace, Greenock, . 
Mrs Wallace, Glassingall, . 
Sir George Warrender, Bruntsfield House, Edin 

burgh, ..... 
George Waterston & Sons, 56 Hanover Street, Edin 

burgh, ..... 
A. Watson, Bank Agent, Fraserburgh, 
J. Watson, 45 Charlotte Square, Edinburgh, 
James Watson & Co., 26 Rcnfield Street, Glasgow 
Sir James Watson, Glasgow, 
Watson Brothers, 5 Oswald Street, Glasgow, 
J. Watson, 2 Oswald Road, Edinburgh, 



£ 


5. 


d. 


2 


1 





5 








3 


5 





4 


4 





2 


10 





3 


3 





2 


2 





1 


1 





2 


1 





3 


3 





20 








10 








40 








525 








700 








25 








1 








12 








3 








27 








1 








7 


10 





2 


1 





4 








1 


1 





2 


2 





1 


1 





1 








1 








1 








1 








2 


2 





1 


1 





5 








2 


2 





3 


3 





2 


2 





25 








20 








5 


5 





1 


1 





5 


5 





5 








5 








3 








20 


10 





3 








11 








2 








5 









1 1 



1 


1 





1 


1 





9 


2 





15 


10 





2 


2 





5 








2 


2 






s. d. 
2 



Dr P. H. Watson, 16 Charlotte Square, Edinburgh, 
Professor Morrison Watson, Owen's College, Man- 
chester, . . . . .10 
David Watters, Montrose House, Grange Loan, 

Edinburgh, . . . . .2 

Merve G. Weinberg, Dundee, . . .5 

Robert Weir, 17 Royal Terrace, Edinburgh, . 1 

The Earl of Wemyss, Gosford House, Longniddry, 50 
J. A. Wenley, 5 Drumsheugh Gardens, Edinburgh, 5 
J. Martin White, Springrove, Dundee, . . 25 

The Misses White, 4 Lansdowne Crescent, Edinburgh, 13 

2 

5 

10 

1 



George Whitfield, Hamsey, West Lewis, Sussex, 
Dr Whyte, 52 Melville Street, Edinburgh, 
J. Stone- Wigg, Estcourt, Tunbridge Wells, 
Wigham& Vernon, 129 George Street, Edinburgh, 
John K. Wigham, Chapel Street, Dublin, . 
John Wilkie of Foulden, 
Phillip Williams, Hinstock, Market Drayton, 
George Williamson, 5 Chamberlain Road, Edin- 
burgh, ..... 
R. C. Williamson, 6 Moray Place, Edinburgh. 
Stephen Williamson, M.P. , St Andrews, . 
George Wilson, S.S.C., 16 Minto Street, Edinburgh, 
G. Fergusson Wilson, Heatherbank, Werbridge, 
J. Wilson, ..... 
T. J. Wilson, S.S.C., 30 Queen Street, Edinburgh. 
Thomas Wilson, Rivers Lodge, Harpendean, 
Admiral Thomas Wilson, C. B., 46 Palmerston 

Place, Edinburgh, 
Provost Wilson, Greenock, . 
E. T. Wood, Brinscall, 
William Wood, C.A., 4 Oxford Terrace, Edinburgh, 
Samuel Woodhouse, Norley Hall, Frodham, 
J. C. Wright, 30 Castle Street, Edinburgh, 
A. Wylie of Prinlaws, Leslie, 
Wylie & Lochhead, Glasgow, 

Y. L., 

A. Young, 22 Elm Row, Edinburgh, 

James Young of Kelly, 

J. Youngclause, Lighthouse, Monach (collected 

by), 

Robert Younger, St Ann's Brewery, Edinburgh, 

William Younger, Anchen Castle, Moffat, . 

William Younger & Co., Edinburgh, 

Colonel Henry Yule, 3 Pen-y-wern Road, London, 

Sir George Yule, 30 Clanricarde Gardens, London, 

The Right Hon. The Earl of Zetland, 

Sums under One Pound, 

Subscriptions received at Observatory : — 

George Bray, 

J. Brown, 

L. Colsor, Bridport, 

Charles W. Cowan, Penicuik, 

Dr Harker, 

H. M. C, ... 

C. S. Inglis, 

Thomas Lundy, . 

A. L. Rotch, Blue Hill Observatory, Boston, U.S. 

Sir Richard Wallace, 

Mrs Ward, Manchester, . 

Sums under £1, . 



1 

1 
1 

2 
6 
5 
1 
2 
1 
3 
1 

5 

1 
2 

5 
5 
2 
1 
7 
2 
1 
200 

1 
5 
5 

20 
1 
2 

50 



1 
1 
1 
5 
5 
2 
1 
1 
5 
10 
1 
5 



2 

5 

1 





2 




1 












2 

1 

3 



1 


2 



2 

1 

2 



1 




3 






19 6 











2 

13 





1 

14 6 



D K BUCHAN ON THE METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS 



Trans.Roy.Soc. EdmWol.XXXW 











< i, f-L CO CO \0 Jo 

a: 

s m - f , _ m m - . ..-«% -- w 

■■ m « m *f i/ivo t-^oo oiO Mdm* »«vo 



THE METEOKOLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 

By ALEXANDER BUCHAN, LL.D., 

SECRETARY OF THE SCOTTISH METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



The attention of meteorologists was almost exclusively directed, till quite 
recently, to the collecting of the observational data necessary for determining the 
diurnal variation and the geographical distribution of the temperature, pressure, 
moisture, and movements of the atmosphere and the rainfall. In conducting 
these inquiries, the importance of the study of the changes of weather came 
gradually to be recognised, and an additional impetus was given to the prosecu- 
tion of this branch of meteorology when it was seen that the subject had inti- 
mate relations to the practical question of weather forecasts, including storm 
warnings. Weather maps, showing the state of the weather over a consider- 
able portion of the earth's surface, began to be constructed, and rapid pro- 
gress was at once made in our knowledge of the more striking changes of 
weather as these occur from clay to day. 

One of the largest and most important practical problems of meteorology is 
to ascertain the course which storms follow, and the causes by which that 
course is determined, so that we may forecast from the meteorological pheno- 
mena observed, not only the certain approach of a storm, but the particular 
course that storm will take. The method of conducting this large inquiry in 
the most effective manner was devised by the genius of Leverrier, and began to 
be carried out by him in 1858 by the daily publication of the Bulletin Interna- 
tional, to which a synchronous weather map was added in September 1863. 
This map showed graphically for the morning of the day of publication the 
atmospheric pressure and the direction and force of the wind, together with 
tables of temperature, rainfall, cloud, and sea disturbance from a large number 
of places in all parts of Europe. It is from such weather maps that forecasts 
of storms are framed and suitable warnings issued, and a body of information 
is being collected which is gradually leading to a juster knowledge of those 
great atmospheric movements and other changes which form the groundwork 
of the science. 

These weather maps practically take note only of the meteorological con- 
ditions and changes which are observed at one height, viz., the level of the sea. 
vol. xxxiv. c 



xviii METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 

But by and by it came to be recognised that as regards weather changes and 
other problems of meteorology, a knowledge of the vertical variations which 
take place in the atmospherical conditions is of the utmost importance. 
Now, the only way we can arrive at this knowledge is by regular observations 
made at stations which, while very near each other, differ in height as much as 
possible. In 1875 Mr Thomas Stevenson, late President of the Society, pro- 
posed to establish a series of stations, from the bottom to the top of some steep 
mountain, in order to obtain such vertical sections of the atmosphere for calcu- 
lating vertical gradients for atmospherical pressure, temperature, and humidity. 

In the meantime, High-Level Stations were being established in the 
United States, Mexico, India, and the Australian colonies ; and on the Con- 
tinent of Europe, in France, Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Germany, and 
Russia. But in this general movement in meteorological research Great 
Britain took no part. 

In 1877 Mr Milne Home, then Chairman of the Council of the Scottish 
Meteorological Society, pointed out the singular advantages of Ben Nevis as a 
High-Level Observatory. It is the highest mountain in the British Islands, 
rising to a height of 4406 feet above the sea; its summit is, in horizontal 
distance, about 4 miles from a sea-level station at Fort- William ; and it is 
situated in the track of the south-west storms from the Atlantic, which 
exercise, particularly during the colder months of the year, so preponderating 
an influence on the weather of Europe. These, and other advantages to be 
afterwards referred to, offered by Ben Nevis as a High-Level Meteorological 
Observatory, are therefore unique, and it was at once recognised that observa- 
tions made there would prove of the greatest value to meteorology. 

For these reasons it was resolved to erect a permanent Observatory on the 
top of Ben Nevis. Plans were prepared by Mr Stevenson in 1879, and offers 
received from various contractors, but the want of the necessary funds pre- 
cluded anything being clone at that time. 

The Meteorological Council of the Royal Society of London offered in 

1880, unsolicited, £100 annually to the Scottish Meteorological Society, to aid 
in the support of the Observatory should it be established, the only stipula- 
tion being that the Meteorological Council be supplied with copies of the 
observations. 

Towards the end of 1880 Mr Clement L. Wragge offered to the Scottish 
Meteorological Society to ascend the mountain daily during the summer of 

1881, and make observations at the top simultaneously with observations made 
at Fort- William, the Society defraying the expenses connected with the work. 
The offer was accepted, and from June to October of that year, simultaneous 
observations were made without the break of a single day by Mr Wragge or 
his assistant at the top, and by Mrs Wragge at Fort- William, close to the sea. 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. xix 

A second series was carried on by Mr Wragge during the summer months of 
1882, these being on a much more extended scale, and arranged on the method 
proposed by Mr Stevenson in 1875. According to this method, eight stations, 
extending from Fort- William to the top of Ben Nevis, were established at differ- 
ent heights on the side of the mountain. Observations were made at these eight 
stations both on the outward and the homeward journeys ; and simultaneously 
with these, observations were made with all the instruments at Fort-William, 
amounting to twenty-one each day, at various intervals from 5 a.m. to 9 p.m. 
To the ordinary observations were added the temperature of the sea, of 
streams, the lake, and springs of water passed on the way ; on changes of 
cloud, the intensity of light, changes of direction or force of wind, and other 
weather-phenomena. During the summer of 1883 similar observations were 
carried on by Messrs Whyte and Rankin, who had on previous years acted 
as assistants to Mr Wragge. 

The observations of these three years have been discussed, and the results 
published by the Scottish Meteorological Society.* As regards, however, the 
elaborate observations at the eight stations made in 1882, the discussion has 
only been a very partial one. Their full importance will only appear in the 
high place they will take in discussing the deviations from the normals of pres- 
sure, temperature, humidity, &c, that occur in the lowermost stratum of the 
atmosphere, 4406 feet thick, thus comprising nearly a sixth part of the mass of 
the earth's atmosphere. This elaborate system of observations was carried out 
by Mr Wragge with a skill, energy, resolution, and success worthy of all praise. 

The discussion of these observations brought out results of the greatest 
interest. The deviations from the provisionally adopted normals of pressure, 
temperature, and humidity which were noted from time to time were compared 
with the weather changes which occurred ; and from these comparisons valu- 
able evidence was obtained of the correctness of the high expectations which 
had been formed regarding the part to be played by a High-Level Observatory 
on Ben Nevis, in assisting to frame forecasts of the weather of the British 
Islands, which can be obtained nowhere but from such an elevated position as 
the top of Ben Nevis. 

In these circumstances the Scottish Meteorological Society made an appeal, 
in the early months of 1883, to the public for funds to enable them to build 
an Observatory on Ben Nevis. The proposal was heartily supported by 
scientific men both at home and abroad ; and the interest of the public 
was shown by a prompt response to the appeal for subscriptions. A sum of 
£4000 was soon collected, and by October the subscriptions exceeded £5000 ; 
the subscriptions varying in amount from £200 to a halfpenny,, and the sub- 
scribers representing all ranks, from Her Majesty downwards. 

* Jour. Scot. Met. Soc, Third Series, vol. i. pp. 4-27. 



XX METE0110L0GY OF BEN NEVIS. 

No time was lost in taking steps to erect the buildings, so that the practical 
work of the Observatory should begin before winter set in. The directors were 
the more anxious for this, seeing that the experience of a winter's work was 
necessary to enable them to foresee and provide against the difficulties that 
would arise next year, when additional buildings and continuously registering 
apparatus would be required in the future work of the Observatory. The 
buildings were erected from plans by Mr Sydney Mitchell, architect, and the 
Observatory was formally opened by Mrs Cameron Campbell, the proprietor 
of the ground on which the buildings are erected, on October 17, 1883. 
Shortly thereafter, Mr E. T. Omond, superintendent, Mr Angus Rankin, first 
assistant, and Mr Duncan, second assistant, went into residence, and on 
November 28 the regular work of the Observatory commenced, consisting of 
hourly observations by night as well as by day, which have been carried on 
uninterruptedly since. 

Telegraphic communication was established by the Post Office authorities 
between the Observatory and Fort- William ; and a resume of each day's 
observations is telegraphed for the morning newspapers. 

The Observatory is fully equipped with instruments of the best description.* 
A peculiarity of the system of observation carried on is that the whole of the 
observations of temperature and humidity must be eye observations. This 
necessity is occasioned by the peculiar climatic conditions which obtain at the 
top of Ben Nevis, these being (1) the high winds which prevail, often exceeding 
the rate of 100 miles an hour, thus rendering the indications of registering 
thermometers practically useless; (2) the completely saturated atmosphere which 
prevails so frequently, so complete being the saturation that everything exposed 
in it is dripping wet ; (3) the formation of a thick incrustation of ice during 
large portions of the year round every object exposed in the outside air; and (4) 
the frequent choking up of Stevenson's thermometer screen by snow drifts. 

From the commencement the directors contemplated, as a constituent part 
of this system of observations, the establishment of a Low-Level Observatory at 
Fort- William, since it is not the observations made at the Observatory taken by 
themselves, but these observations in their relations to similar ones made near 
sea-level at Fort- William that will further meteorological research, and contribute 
the aid required in forecasting weather. Accordingly, a station was estab- 
lished at Fort- William in December 1883, and placed under the charge of 
Mr Colin Livingston, of the Public Schools, at which observations are made 
five times daily in connection with those made on Ben Nevis, the hours of 
observation being 8 and 9 a.m. and 2, 6, and 9 p.m. The instruments here 
are of the best description, including a barograph and a thermograph, used 
chiefly as instruments for verification of the observations and for interpola- 

* See p. lii. 



METEOEOLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 



XXI 



tion purposes. The station selected at Fort- William is within a few yards of 
the sea, and 29 feet above mean sea-level ; while the Observatory at the top of 
Ben Nevis is built on a true peak. Both stations are therefore in positions at 
which the effects of solar and terrestrial radiation are minimised. The observa- 
tions of temperature at both stations thus closely approximate to the true 
temperature of the free atmosphere — a condition of the first importance in 
dealing with the larger questions in meteorology, which it is the chief object of 
High-Level Observatories to elucidate. In these respects, no other pair of 
Meteorological Stations anywhere in the world are so favourably situated as 
these two stations for supplying the observational data required in investigating 
the vertical changes of the atmosphere. The observations made at the Ben Nevis 
Observatory and those at Fort-William are printed in extenso with this Report. 

Temperature. 

In the following table the mean temperature in each case is obtained from 

the formula — 

Max. + min. + 9 a.m. + 9 p.m. 
4 

The means for both stations are for the four years since the Observatory 
was opened, beginning with December 1883, and ending with December 1887. 





Jan. Feh. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 




Ben Nevis Observatory. 




1883, .... 
1884 


25-6 


23-0 


24-6 


27-4 


33-1 


37-1 


41-6 


42-3 


40-0 


32-9 


26-2 


25-8 
24-6 


31-6 


1885, .... 


24-2 


23-4 


22-3 


26-9 


26-8 


35-6 


42-3 


39-9 


34-8 


26-4 


28-5 


26 '2 


29-8 


1886, .... 


19-8 


21-1 


22-0 


26-8 


30-5 


36 


38-5 


39-9 


36-4 


34-6 


29-5 


20-2 


29-6 


1887, .... 


24-9 


27-1 


24-0 


25-6 


32-0 


45-5 


41-3 


40-0 


36-6 


28-4 


26-1 


22-8 


31 '2 




Fort- William. 




1883, .... 

1884, .... 


42-0 


41-4 


427 


45-5 


49-9 


54 '8 


58-2 


58-2 


54-9 


47 '9 


41-4 


41-0 
39-4 


48-0 


1885 


37-4 


39 


39-8 


45-3 


46-0 


53 6 


56-4 


557 


51-2 


42-3 


41-8 


40-2 


45-7 


1886 


35-5 


34-8 


38-7 


44-0 


48-2 


53-3 


55-6 


55-3 


51-3 


49-4 


43-7 


34-3 


45-4 


1887, .... 


39-3 


40-5 


38-8 


42-8 


49-3 


58-3 


57-6 


56-4 


51-0 


44-8 


40-2 


36 '0 


46-3 


MeanB. N. 0.,. 


23-6 


23-6 


23-2 


26 7 


30-6 


38 '5 


40 '9 


40-5 


36-9 


30-6 


27-6 


23-9 


30-5 


„ F.-W., . . . 
Difference, 


38 6 


38-9 


40-0 


44-4 


48-4 


55-0 


57-0 


56-4 


521 


46-1 


41-8 


38-2 


46-4 


15-0 


15-3 


16-8 


17-7 


17-8 


16-5 


16-1 


159 


15-2 


15-5 


14-2 


14-3 


159 


Rate of fall of temperature ) 
with height, . . . \ 


292 


286 


261 


248 


246 


265 


272 


275 


288 


282 


308 


306 


275 



Thus the mean annual temperature of Ben Nevis for these four years is 
30 o- 5, the lowest monthly mean being 23°2 in March, and the highest 40°*9 
in July; August being nearly equal, viz., 40°*5. The difference between the 



XX11 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 



mean annual temperature of Ben Nevis and Fort- William is 15° 9, the least 
monthly mean difference 14°2 occurring in November, and the greatest 17° '8 
in May. The greatest difference between the temperature of the top and 
bottom of the mountain occurs from March to June, when the top is still 
under a deep covering of snow, the air is driest, the great annual increase of 
temperature is in progress, and the temperature of the Atlantic relatively to 
that of the air is lowest. On the other hand, the difference is least from 
November to January, when the mountain is most frequently and most densely 
enveloped in cloud and mist, the atmosphere oftenest completely saturated, and 
westerly winds from the Atlantic very greatly predominate. 

These results show that the rate of the decrease of temperature with height 
is one degree Fahrenheit for every 275 feet of ascent on the mean of the year, 
the rate being most rapid in April and May, when it is one degree for each 
247 feet, and least rapid in November and December, when it is one degree for 
307 feet. This rate agrees closely with the results of the most carefully con- 
ducted balloon ascents, and of those of the very few other pairs of stations in 
other countries from which tolerably satisfactory data can be obtained. 

A comparison of the observations of the two stations for the period shows 
a variation with the hour of the day more decidedly marked than the variation 
with season. The following are the differences between their mean daily 
maxima and the differences between their mean minima : — 





Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 


Difference of Mean Maxima, 
Difference of Mean Minima, 


15° -9 
14° -4 


17°'4 
14°-1 


19-6 
15° -4 


22° -4 
14°-3 


22-1 
14°-7 


21 c -0 
13°-1 


20° -2 
13° -4 


20°-5 
13° -0 


19° -2 
12° -8 


18°-4 
13° -8 


15° -5 
13°-0 


15°6 

13°-1 


19° -0 
13°-8 



Hence in winter the decrease of temperature with height is nearly as great 
during the night as during the day, but from April to September the rate of fall 
during the day is about a half more than that of the night. In April the rate 
of decrease of temperature with height is one degree for 196 feet during the 
warmest time of the day, whereas during the coldest time in the early morning- 
it is one degree for 301 feet. 

The rates of decrease observed from day to day, however, differ widely 
from these means and from each other. The greatest fall of temperature from 
Fort-William to the Observatory noted to the end of 1887 was 28 0, 1 at 2 p.m. of 
June 8, 1885. On the other hand, however, the temperature at the top has 
frequently stood higher than the temperature of Fort-William. The greatest 
deviation in this direction occurred at 8 a.m. of November 18, 1885, when, while 
the temperature at Fort- William was 22°-2, that of the top was 35° \1, or 12° 9 
higher. The departures from the normal differences of temperature, but more 
especially the inversions of temperature, and the extraordinarily rapid rates of 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. xxiii 

diminution with height are intimately connected with the cyclones and anti- 
cyclones of north-western Europe, and form data, as valuable as they are 
unique, in forecasting storms. 

But the wet bulb thermometer furnishes observations even more remark- 
able than those which indicate simply the temperature of the air. Indeed, the 
most striking feature of the climate of Ben Nevis is the repeated occurrence 
of excessive droughts. Of these droughts the following thermometric readings, 
made on July 30, 1885, afford a good example : — 





Dry. 


Wet. 


Diff. 


Dew-Point. 


1 A.M. . 


. 48°-8 


46°-9 


r-9 


44°-8 


2 „ . • 


. 48°-3 


45°-3 


3°0 


42°-0 


3 „ • 


. 50°-3 


36°2 


14°-1 


21°3 


4 „ • 


. 49°-7 


36°-2 


13°5 


21°-8 



Such low humidities and dew-points, sharply marked off from high humidi- 
ties and dew-points, frequently occur. Several remarkable instances which 
occurred during the summer and early autumn of 1885 form a valuable 
contribution to the science, especially when viewed in connection with the 
irregular geographical distribution of the disastrous frosts which occurred in 
some districts, but not in others, on subsequent evenings. The observations 
show comparatively brief continued states of the atmosphere characterised by 
clear skies and low humidities to have repeatedly passed the Observatory, which 
were closely preceded and followed by states of the atmosphere showing- 
large humidity. Now it is evident that, during the night when temperature 
falls through the effects of terrestrial radiation, those parts of the country will 
suffer most from frosts over which these very dry states of the air pass or rest ; 
whereas those districts over which a more humid atmosphere hangs will escape. 
On the night of August 31 to September 1 of 1885, the potato crop was totally 
destroyed, and grain crops in flower at the time were also destroyed by 
frost, in various localities in the valleys of Tweed, Nith, Clyde, and Spey. 
Over middle and upper Speyside, temperature on the ground fell to 15°'0, with 
results most disastrous to these crops ; whereas at Dalnaspidal, in the district 
immediately contiguous, potatoes were scarcely if at all blackened. 

But by far the greatest drought recorded at the Observatory was in March 
1886, which commenced at 1 a.m. on the 11th, and ended at midnight of the 
12th, thus extending over forty-eight hours. The mean humidity, calculated 
from Apjohn's formula, of the first twenty-four hours was 19, and of the 
second twenty-four hours 15, the least humidity being 6 at 8 p.m. of the 12th. 
The three consecutive hours of greatest dryness were the following : — 



XXIV 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 



7 P.M., . 


Dry. 
. 21°-8 


Wet. 
14°-8 


Dew- Point. 

-32°1 


Humidity 

7 


8 „ . 


. 21°0 


14°0 


-34°-3 


6 


9 „ . 


. 19°-2 


13°0 


- 32°3 


8 



During these two days the sky was cloudless throughout, the wind south- 
easterly, blowing at first with force 5 (scale to 12), then gradually falling to 
3 at 9 a.m. of the 11th, about which it remained till 4 p.m. of the 12th, when it 
fell to a calm, or only the lightest airs from the north-east at the time the 
greatest dryness took place. On these days the extremes of temperature 
were 24° 3 and 13° 3 ; and it may be noticed that at 8 a.m. of the 12th, while 
at the Observatory the temperature was 23°9, at Fort-William it was 19°-2, 
or 4° 7 lower than on the top of the mountain. Mr Wragge's observations of 
1882, made at different heights, clearly show that such extraordinary dry states 
of the atmosphere are restricted to the higher parts of the mountain. 

For each of the four years the maximum temperatures recorded at the 
Observatory were 60° 1, 60° *0, 55° '8, and 66° 2 ; and the minimum tempera- 
tures 9 0, 9, ll°'l, 8 0, 4, and 9°0 respectively. Thus the highest temperature 
recorded in these three years was 66 0, 2 in June 1887, and the lowest 8°*4 in 
December 1886, giving 57° "8 as the absolute range. 

Atmospheric Pressure. 

The mean monthly atmospheric pressures at the Observatory (at 32° only), 
and at Fort- William (at 32° and sea-level) are these, the means being calculated 
from the hours 9 a.m. and 9 p.m. 





Jan. 


Fell. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sep. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Year. 




Ben Nevis Observatory. 


1883, 
1884, 
1885, 
1886, 
1887, 


in. 

25-174 
25-150 
24-942 
25-159 


in. 

25-i'lO 
24-863 
25-398 
25-494 


in. 

25 : 184 
25 360 
25-234 
25-390 


in. 

25 : 291 
25-189 
25-273 
25-374 


in. 

25-319 
25-153 
25-322 
25-472 


in. 

25-499 
25-467 
25-417 
25-680 


in. 

25-386 
25-594 
25-319 
25-424 


in. 

25-440 
25-475 
25-382 

25-424 


in. 

25-405 
25-193 
25-395 
25-358 


in. 

25-377 
25-130 
25-201 
25-445 


in. 

25'-438 
25-233 
25-213 
25-086 


in. 
25-390 
25-056 
25-390 
24-953 
25-089 


in. 

25'-302 
25-267 
25-259 
25-366 




Fort- William. 


1883, 
1884, 
1885, 
1886, 
1887, 


29-751 

29-758 
29 544 
29-753 


29-704 

29-422 
30-071 
30-124 


29-759 
30-004 
29-875 
30-032 


29-859 
29-759 
29-867 
29-992 


29-842 
29-718 
29-880 
30-044 


30-018 
30-001 
29-940 
30-168 


29-844 
30-099 
29-810 
29-902 


29-896 
29-986 
29-865 
29-911 


29-886 
29-692 
29-916 
29-875 


29-932 
29-702 
29-780 
30-046 


30 063 
29-775 
29-776 
29-655 


30-011 
29-636 
29-978 
29-558 
29-698 


29-849 
29-825 
29-824 
29-933 


Mean B. N. 0., 
„ F.-W., 

Difference, . . 


25-106 
29-701 


25-216 
29-830 


25-292 
29-918 


25-282 
29-869 


25-316 
29-871 


25-516 
30-032 


25-431 

29-914 


25-430 
29-914 


25-338 
29-842 


25-303 
29-865 


25-243 

29-817 


25-176 
29-776 


25-300 
29-862 


4-595 


4-614 


4 626 


4-587 


4-555 


4-516 


4-483 


4-484 


4-504 


4-562 


4-574 


4-600 


4-562 



This table gives for Ben Nevis a mean annual pressure of 25-300 inches. 
The maximum monthly pressure is 25-516 inches in June, and the minimum 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. XXV 

5*106 in January, the difference being 0*410 inch. Comparing the pressures 
at the Observatory with those at sea-level at Fort- William, the mean annual 
difference is 4*562 inches, the greatest monthly difference being 4*626 inches 
in March, and the least 4*483 inches in July. 

Among the more important points to be determined, particularly as regards 
the investigation of weather phenomena, are the normal differences between 
atmospheric pressure at the Observatory and at Fort- William for the different 
air temperatures and sea-level pressures that occur. These differences, or 
corrections for height as they are usually called, were first calculated from all 
the synchronous observations made at the two stations, and the results entered 
in a provisional " Table of Corrections for Height." With the aid of this table 
the departures from the normals were ascertained for each of the five daily 
observations made since the opening of the Observatory. The results showed a 
diminution of pressure at the Observatory on almost every occasion during the 
prevalence of high winds on the top of the mountain ; or when the wind blew 
at a rate of 30 miles an hour and upwards, the observations reduced to 
sea-level indicated a less pressure than what was actually observed at Fort- 
William at the time. Further, the differences were found to increase with 
the strength of the wind, and amounted not unfrequently to the tenth of an 
inch, and on one day when the wind continued to blow at the rate of about 
120 miles an hour, the five synchronous observations of that clay showed 
differences of about 0*150 inch. This lowering of pressure is no doubt due to 
the winds partially sucking out the air from the interior of the building as 
they brush past the Observatory. A similar result was also observed by Mr 
Wragge and assistants during the summer months of 1881-83, when the baro- 
meter was placed in a cairn specially built for its reception. 

It thus became necessary to calculate afresh the table of corrections for 
height, using in the new calculation only those observations which were made 
when the wind at the Observatory blew at rates lower than 30 miles an hour. 
This recalculation has been completed, and with the results thus obtained, the 
" Table of Corrections for Height " accompanying this paper has been prepared, 
giving the corrections for each tenth of an inch of the pressure at sea-level 
from 27*400 inches to 30*900 inches, and for every 1°*0 of the temperature of 
the air from 16°*0 to 75° 0. In this inquiry the temperature of the air has 
been assumed as the simple arithmetical mean of the temperatures at the 
Observatory and Fort- William. 

The results are closely accordant with the figures for a sea-level pressure of 
30*000 inches published by General Hazen of the U.S. Signal Service for 
the use of the United States' observers, with this difference, that for each 
degree from 16°*0 to 75°*0, the sea-level corrections empirically determined for 
Ben Nevis are 0*020 inch greater than the figures of the Signal Office, 
vol. xxxiv. d 



XXVI METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 

The sea-level corrections for the Observatory have been worked out from 
the formula given by Laplace in the Mecanique Celeste in the form employed 
by the Meteorological Council, and in general use by meteorologists in the 
United Kingdom.* At an outside air-temperature of 45° '0, the correction for 
height deduced from this formula is identical with the correction calculated 
directly from the observations for all the sea-level pressures. But at lower 
temperatures the correction from the formula steadily increases, and at an air- 
temperature of 20° '0 and sea-level pressure of 30 000, it is 040 inch larger 
than the correction empirically determined from the Ben Nevis observations ; 
while, on the other hand, with air- temperatures higher than 45° - 0, the empiri- 
cally-determined correction is the larger one. It was found that, when the 
additions to the corrections in the Laplace table for air-temperatures lower than 
45° were reduced by one-sixth, and the subtractions from the corrections as the 
temperature rose above 45° were also reduced by one-sixth, the two tables 
were virtually identical. The admirable position of the two stations at which 
the effects of solar and terrestrial radiation are minimised, gives quite a special 
value to the result thus obtained. The table must, however, be regarded only 
as a provisional one, giving closer approximations to the true corrections for 
height than has hitherto been possible. 

In preparing new isothermal and isobaric maps of the globe for the 
" Challenger " Expedition Report on Atmospheric Circulation, these rates 
of diminution of temperature and pressure with height, deduced from the 
Ben Nevis observations, were adopted in the construction of the table of 
corrections for height above mean sea-level up to 8000 feet for the different 
air-temperatures and sea-level pressures that occur. The results of charting 
from these tables afford the strongest corroboration of the great value in 
practical meteorology and physical geography of this piece of work executed 
from the data furnished by the Ben Nevis and Fort- William Observatories. 

The departures from the normal rate of diminution of temperature with 
height, differ materially from each other from time to time. On reducing the 
barometer at the top of the mountain to sea-level, using in the reduction the 
mean of the temperatures at the top and the bottom of the Ben as the tempera- 
ture of the air, it is found in a large majority of cases that the reduced pressure 
closely agrees with the observed sea-level pressure at Fort- William. This 
result is far from being restricted to those cases when the rate of diminution of 
temperature with height is closely approximate to the normal. It also fre- 
quently occurs when the difference of temperature at the two Observatories 
either greatly exceeds, or greatly falls short of, the normal, occurring even 
when the two temperatures are nearly the same, or the upper temperature the 
higher of the two. The agreement of the reduced pressure to sea-level of the 

* Instructions in the Use of Meteorological Instruments, by R H. Scott, London, 1873, p. 80. 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. xxvii 

observations at the top of the mountain with the observed sea-level pressure at 
Fort- William, indicates that, in those instances, either the normal vertical dis- 
tribution of temperature, or its abnormal vertical distribution, as the case may 
be, is uniformly distributed from sea-level to a height of at least 4406 feet. 

But a very considerable number of cases occur in which pressure at the 
top, reduced to sea-level, does not closely agree with the sea-level pressure 
observed at Fort- William, thus indicating that the change of temperature does 
not proceed at a uniform rate from Fort-William to the top of the mountain. 
Two of the more prominent exceptional classes of such observations may be 
here referred to. In anticyclonic weather it frequently happens that tempera- 
ture at the top is relatively much higher than at Fort-William, the higher tem- 
perature being restricted to the higher parts of the mountain. A fine instance 
of this was observed by Mr Wragge on August 8, 1882. During his ascent that 
morning, temperature steadily fell till a height of about 2375 feet was reached, 
when temperature had fallen to 46° ; it then suddenly and rapidly rose to 53° *2 
at the Red Burn Crossing, 2700 feet high, and to 55°*9 at the top ; the tem- 
perature at Fort-William at the same instant being 57°*2. The air on the Ben 
passed, at the same time, from a state of saturation to one of intense dryness. 
The other exceptional class of instances occurred with those east winds which 
are not felt at the Observatory at the top, but are confined to lower levels. 
These being relatively cold winds, a uniform rate of change of temperature with 
height does not obtain. An easterly wind prevailing from sea-level to the top, 
and an easterly wind limited to lower heights, are two very different types of 
weather, and have very different bearing on coming weather. It is not neces- 
sary to insist here on the very great importance, in forecasting weather, of an 
accurate knowledge as to whether the changes of temperature that so markedly 
occur in unsettled weather, are confined to a height extending but little above 
the earth's surface, or reach to at least a height of between 4000 and 5000 feet. 

Rainfall. — The following are the monthly amounts of the rainfall at the 
Observatory and Fort- William during the months when it has been observed 
simultaneously at both stations. 

From the monthly means obtained the annual rainfall on the top of 
Ben Nevis is 129*47 inches, the largest monthly fall being 19'53 inches in 
December, and the least 5*66 inches in April. For the same periods, the mean 
annual rainfall at Fort- William was 77*33 inches, which is 52*14 inches less 
than that of the Observatory. The rainfall of the Ben Nevis Observatory is 
the largest anywhere yet observed in Scotland ; and, as regards the British 
Islands, it is only exceeded at The Stye, Seathwaite, and a few other points in 
the same part of the Lake District. 

The largest rainfall on any day during the four years was 5*34 inches on 
December 12, 1885 ; and on January 1, 1887, there fell 4*45 inches. On the 



xxvm 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 



two days, December 12 and 13, 1885, the amount precipitated was 8*86 inches. 
For five day periods the following are the largest — December ] 1-15, 1885, 
10-25 inches; October 1-5, 1885, 10-02 inches; November 5-9, 1884, 991 
inches ; December, 6-10, 1884, 983 inches ; and December 30 to January 
3, 1886, 9-25 inches. 



1881, . 

1882, . 
1883,. 

1884, . 

1885, . 

1886, . 

1887, . 



1881, . 
1882, . 
1883, . 

1884, . 

1885, . 

1886, . 

1887, .- 



Means B. N. O. 
„ F.-W., 



Jan. 



I 
Feb. I Mar. April. 



May. 



June. July. 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec. Year. 



Ben Nevis Observatory. 



16-94 
2-84 



12-82 
5-91 



4-86 
4-59 



8-37 
6-25 



12 



15 



m. 
12-34 
11-39 
12-61 
8-62 
7-56 
10-16 



in. 

6-09 
10-25 

9-77 
11-66 
20-87 
13-03 



19-10 

9-80 

14-57 



25-29 
24-33 
10-98 



146-50 
107-85 



1780 13-30 5-90 7"53 3-97 7 '51 14-54 8*71 10-99 12-19 8-99 17 "58 129-01 

Fort- William. 



5-63 

8-34 

12-73 

12-70 
8-90 









... 


6-25 


10-88 


6-41 


1-97 


4-23 














3 95 


6-15 


4-30 


5-50 


4-04 














2-44 


3-30 


6-74 


3-46 


















6-34 


5-80 


6-13 


13-77 


13-55 


11-61 


12-45 


4-85 


4-47 


4-21 


3-25 


375 


3-15 


11-71 


8-70 


6-64 


13-86 


4-76 


4-96 


4-98 


3-88 


3-05 


5-60 


4-95 


8-76 


5-58 


8-96 


7-31 


11-39 


3-49 


3-48 


1-86 


3-33 


7-90 


3-02 


4-55 


6-22 


5-09 


8-18 


11-03 


8-21 


5-66 


6-20 


8-06 


10-85 


10-20 


11-81 


12-10 


13-12 


19-53 


9-53 


4-43 


4-31 


3-32 


3-71 


6-32 


4-91 


6-01 


7-09 


8-56 


10-24 



82-67 
71-13 
71-24 

129-47 
77-33 



From the commencement of the hourly observations of rain and other forms 
of precipitation in the beginning of July 1884 to December 31, 1887, there are 
1279 days. Of these 1279 days there have been 361 days in which either no 
rain at all or less than the hundredth of an inch was collected ; so that on Ben 
Nevis one day in from three to four days has been without rain. The fewest 
rainless days occur in December, and largest number in April, the proportions 
being about 1 in 6 and 1 in 2 days respectively. 

On the other hand, if we accept l'OO inch as representing a very rainy day, 
there occurred in the same period 145 days on which 1-00 or upwards was 
recorded, being thus in the proportion of 1 day in 9. The largest number of 
such days was 9 a month, in December ; then follow September, October, and 
November with about 6 each ; and the smallest about one a month, in April, 
May, and June. The months of these groups are severally successive, the 
former being the time of the year when the great annual fall of temperature 
takes place, and the latter the time of the great increase of temperature. An 
inch of rain was not recorded on any day in June 1885 and February 1886, and 
in 6 of the 17 months this amount occurred only on 1 day in each month. 



Diurnal Phenomena. 

Diurnal Variation of Temperature. — During the four years the barometric 
observations have been made without the break of a single hour. As, however, 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 



xxix 



the tower of the Observatory, which admits of easy egress to the thermometers 
outside when the top of the mountain is deeply covered with snow, was not 
erected till the summer of 1884, occasional interruptions in the thermometric 
readings occurred during the first five months, on to April 1884, when blinding 
snowdrifts rendered it unsafe for the observers, even though roped together, to 
go outside. As the season advanced the interruptions became less frequent, and 
from May 7, 1884, the observations of temperature have been made without the 
break of an hour, except for 14 consecutive hours from 6 p.m. of February 21, 
1885, to 8 a.m. of the 22nd, this period being signalised by a storm of such 
unprecedented severity as absolutely precluded the possibility of any egress to 
the Stevenson screen. In the following tables of temperature observations, 
the omitted hours of observations have been interpolated, — the maximum and 
minimum temperatures and the barometric, wind, and other observations that 
happened to be made in the interval being used as guides in interpolating. 
In all cases the interpolated observations are printed within brackets. 

Table I. gives the mean hourly temperatures of the months for the four 
years, and the hourly variations from the monthly means. The following table 
shows for the seasons the means and the mean coldest and warmest hour of 
the day, and their differences from the daily means : — 





Minimum. 


Maximum. 




Hour. 




Hour. 


Winter, 

Spring, 

Summer, 

Autumn, 

Year, .... 


-0°3 
-1-2 

-1-6 
-06 
-09 


5 A.M. 
5 „ 

5 „ 

6 „ 
5 „ 


+°0-5 
+ 1-3 

+ T8 
+ 10 

+ 1-2 


1 P.M. 

2 „ 

3 „ 

1 „ 

2 „ 



Thus for the whole year, the difference between the mean coldest hour, 
5 a.m., and the warmest hour, 2 p.m., is 2° 1. In winter the difference is only 
o, 8, but in summer it is 3°*4. The month of least range 0°*6, is January. 
For the five months from October to February, the mean daily range of 
temperature varies only from 0°6 to 1°5. 

This is the time of the year when storms are most frequent, and this small 
range in the diurnal march of the temperature is an important feature in the 
climatology of Ben Nevis, inasmuch as it presents in nearly their simple form 
the great changes of temperature accompanying storms and other weather 
changes, which it is so essential to know in forecasting weather. On the other 
hand, the cyclonic changes of temperature are markedly large, and may be 



XXX METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 

considered as fairly well represented by the daily maximum and minimum 
temperatures. Hence, while the daily range of temperature from the mean 
hourly observations for January is only 0°6, the mean from the daily maxima 
and minima is 7°0. 

The disturbing influence of cyclones on the temperature is also strikingly 
seen in the diurnal curve for January, which shows a double maximum and 
minimum for the four years' observations, which will no doubt disappear as 
observations accumulate. The same disturbing influence is apparent more or 
less in the six months from October to March, particularly as regards the 
time of the minimum temperature of the day. 

Humidity. — The hygrometry of Ben Nevis is one of the most remarkable 
features of its climate. The usual conditions are a saturated atmosphere. In 
the warmer months of the year it often happens that everything outside the 
Observatory is dripping wet, and on opening the Stevenson box for the thermo- 
meters, a drop of water is seen at each thermometer bulb ; the box itself 
seems just to have been lifted out of water, and everything all round is 
wrapped in dense wetting mist. In the winter months, when the temperature 
is below freezing, a dense mist frequently envelops everything, and the wind 
deposits ice on all objects it sweeps past, the deposition being on the windward 
side of the object. 

This state of things adds greatly to the labour of observing, inasmuch as it 
renders necessary a repeated change of the thermometer box, and the labour 
is further increased by the necessity of clearing the louvres and thermometers 
of the fine particles of snow with which they get covered by the whirling drifts, 
so that the essential condition of temperature observations may be secured 
for the bulbs of the thermometers, viz., that they are kept entirely in contact 
with the free atmosphere. Hence, as regards the observations of temperature, 
registering instruments can never take the place of observers on Ben Nevis as 
is the case with low-level observations ; and seeing that observations of 
temperature are absolutely indispensable in utilising and discussing barometric 
observations, the personal services of the observer can never be dispensed with 
at this Observatory. 

Further, more than common care and attention must be given to keep the 
wet bulb thermometer in good order, so that it may show unfailingly those 
changes in the humidity, which are frequently great, sudden, and of brief 
duration, and are so important in connection with the atmospheric changes of 
north-western Europe. Hence it is part of the observer's regular routine of 
duty after each observation to secure so far as possible that at next hour's 
observation the " wet bulb " will be properly wet, and if the temperature is 
under 32 o- 0, that it will have a proper coating of ice. For this purpose a small 
phial of water is carried in the observer's pocket. Some idea may be formed 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. xxxi 

of the unremitting care and attention required, when it is stated that in winter, 
on occasions of extraordinary dryness of the air, it sometimes happens that the 
cloth of the wet bulb thermometer, after being wetted and then covered with a 
coating of ice, becomes dry again in ten minutes. It is, however, nearly always 
found that a little attention to the wet bulb after each observation secures 
its being in good order for next hour's observation. 

But perhaps the greatest difficulty of all is with the dry bulb thermometer. 
Under the conditions referred to above, the dry bulb in winter gets rapidly 
encrusted with a thin pellicle of ice, and in the warmer season with a film of 
water with a drop ever and anon falling from it. The result is that the dry 
bulb becomes an almost ideally perfect wet bulb ; and hence as the wet bulb is 
less sensitive to changes of temperature, owing to the muslin surrounding it, it 
frequently occurs that the dry bulb reads lower than the wet. In these 
circumstances a real dry bulb is impossible to be had, but in such cases the 
air is either at, or very near the point of, saturation. 

The hygrometric observations are printed as observed, and in the meantime, 
while the interpretation of the wet bulb readings is often obscure and doubtful, 
two monthly means for the wet bulb were prepared from the Tables — the first 
being the simple means of the observations as they stand, from which Table II., 
showing the relative humidity, was prepared ; while the second was constructed 
on the assumption that in all cases where the dry bulb reads lower than 
the wet bulb, the air was saturated. From the latter of these means it appears 
that, as regards the seasons, the greatest depression of wet bulb below the 
dry bulb occurs in summer between 11 a.m. and 6 p.m., the mean depression 
being very nearly 1°0, and the least depression in winter from 11 p.m. to 4 a.m. 
As the low humidities depend almost altogether on the passage over the 
Observatory of anticyclones, or particular parts of anticyclones, which occur 
irregularly at all seasons and at all hours, many years will be required to give 
approximately true monthly and hourly means. The daily range of the hourly 
means is in all cases surprisingly small, especially when the bright sunshine, 
usually accompanying the low humidities, is taken into consideration. Even in 
summer, the least depression is 0°70 at 3 a.m. and the greatest l o- 05 at 3 p.m., 
the daily range being thus only o- 35, or about the third of a degree. Table II. 
shows in the hourly means for the year an increased relative humidity from 5 
p.m. to 3 a.m., and a diminished humidity from 4 a.m. to 4 p.m. These devia- 
tions are very small, in every case less than one per cent. The larger deviations 
in several of the separate months are solely due to excessively dry states of the 
atmosphere which occurred during these months in one or more of the years. 

The immense importance of the hygrometric observations is in the decided 
part they play in the occurrence of daily changes of weather attendant on the 
cyclones and anticyclones of north-western Europe, a discussion of which is now 



xxxn 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 



being carried on, and for this purpose it is not the means, but the individual 
observations which are so valuable in their bearings on weather changes. 

Diurnal Oscillations of the Barometer. — Table III. gives the simple arith- 
metical means of the hours for the several months as observed, and the 
difference of the mean of each hour of the day from the mean of the month. If 
the month began and ended with the same height of the barometer, the differ- 
ences of the hourly means from the monthly mean would represent the true 
hourly variation. But such a coincidence very seldom occurs. 

In January 1884 the barometer at 1 a.m. of the 1st was 25*805 inches, and 
at midnight of the 31st 24-837 inches. On the assumption, then, that the day 
began at midnight, the mean for this hour was 25*196 inches ; but if the day 
be considered as beginning at 1 a.m., the mean for the same hour was 25164 
inches, or 0032 inch less than in the former case. If now the hourly differences 
were taken directly from the figures of the upper part of the Table, each 
mean from 1 a.m. to 1 p.m. would be above the monthly mean and the means 
of the other hours below it. Hence, to show the true hourly variation, correc- 
tions determined from the difference of the two midnight means have been 
applied to the hourly means of the Table ; and from the new figures thus 
obtained, the lower part of the Table has been constructed, where the heavy 
type indicates that pressure is above the mean, and the light type, in italics, 
that it is below it. 

From the four years' observations, the following are the four diurnal 
phases, compared with the daily means, of the barometric curves for the 
seasons, with the approximate hours of their occurrence : — 





1 .First Minimum. 


First Maximum. 


Second Minimum. 


Second Maximum. 




inch. 


hour. 


inch. 


hour. 


inch. 


hour. 


inch. 


hour. 


Winter, 


-0-012 


6 A.M. 


+ 0-003 


11 A.M. 


-0-005 


3 P. M. 


+ 0-010 


9 P. M. 


Spring, 


-0-015 


5 „ 


+ 0-010 


2 P.M. 


+ 0-001 


5 „ 


+ 0-008 


9 ,, 


Summer, 


-0-019 


5 „ 


+ 0-012 


2 „ 


+ 0-005 


7 „ 


+ 0-010 


9 „ 


Autumn, 


-0-019 


5 „ 


+ 0-005 


noon 


+ 0-001 


5 ,, 


+ 0-011 


8 ,, 


Year, . 


-0-016 


5 „ 


+ 0-005 


1 P.M. 


+ 0-001 


5 „ 


+ 0-009 


9 „ 



In all seasons the curves show the double maximum and minimum pressure. 
The morning minimum is much greater than the afternoon minimum, as 
happens on all mountain peaks which rise considerably above the plains 
surrounding them. The partial exception of January is occasioned by the 
lowest pressures, accompanying several storms of January 1884, occurring 
about that time of the day, particularly the low pressure of the great storm of 
the 25th, when sea-level pressure fell to 27 333 inches at Ochtertyre, and at 
Fort- William to 27 '4 inches. The relatively larger minimum in the early 
morning is due to the cooling of the atmosphere during the night, by which the 
air contracting sinks to a lower level, thus lowering pressure at high levels. 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. XXXlll 

As this nocturnal cooling below the daily mean temperature is relatively greater 
in summer than in winter, or as the diurnal range of temperature is greatest in 
summer, the morning minimum of pressure falls lowest during the warmer 
months of the year. 

On the other hand, as the atmosphere is heated by the sun's rays during the 
day, the air thereby expanding rises to a higher level, and hence at great 
heights pressure is increased in the afternoon. One of the remarkable results of 
this state of things is, that only in winter does the afternoon minimum fall below 
the mean daily pressure. In summer this afternoon minimum is O005 inch 
above the daily mean. So decided are the temperature effects of solar and terres- 
trial radiation on the diurnal distribution of the pressure on Ben Nevis, that it 
is for the year above the daily mean sixteen hours of the day, and below it only 
eight hours. The largest excess of any hour above the mean annual pressure 
is 0*009 inch at 9 and 10 p.m. ; whereas at 5 a.m. pressure falls 016 inch 
below the mean — the defect in the early morning being thus double the excess 
in the evening. 

In June, when the direct solar heat is strongest, this temperature effect on 
the pressure is most decidedly marked, and as the afternoon minimum falls only 
003 inch below the preceding maximum, a close approach is made during 
this month to a diurnal curve of pressure, with only one maximum and mini- 
mum. It is interesting to note that even a closer approach to a single diurnal 
maximum and minimum of pressure takes place over the open sea in the higher 
latitudes at substantially the same hours, and a single diurnal maximum and 
minimum is also approximated to, and over many regions reached, in the 
interior of continents in the higher latitudes, the maximum, however, occurring 
in such cases about 8 a.m. and the minimum about 5 p.m., being the reverse of 
what occurs at such high-level observatories as Ben Nevis. 

Another remarkable feature in the meteorology of Ben Nevis is the great 
regularity, from month to month, of the times of occurrence of the four phases of 
the pressure, and the comparatively small number of clays' observations required 
to show them. In winter, however, there are exceptions to this regularity, it 
being at this season that the strength of the sun's rays is least, and the disturb- 
ance arising from the passage of cyclones, with their low pressures, greatest. 
Thus in December 1883 the monthly means showed only a single maximum at 
11 a.m. and minimum at 10 p.m. ; and again, in December 1884, a single 
maximum at 9 p.m. and minimum at 7 a.m. ; but the means of the four years 
give a curve with both maxima and minima. 

The diurnal phases of the barometric curve are widely different from the 
above, in places among the mountains situated in valleys, particularly deep 
valleys. Thus at Gries, in the Tyrol, which is situated in a deep valley, the 
following is the diurnal variation in June : — 

vol. xxxiv. e 



XXXIV 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 





Inch. 






Inch. 


1 A.M. 


+ •025 


1 


P.M. 


-•035 


2 „ 


+ •025 


2 


)> 


- -045 


3 „ 


+ •024 


3 


» 


-•054 


4 „ 


+ •028 


4 


ji 


-•058 


5 „ 


+ •034 


5 


» 


-•057 


6 „ 


+ •040 


6 


» 


-•047 


7 „ 


+ •040 


7 


» 


-•035 


8 „ 


+ •035 


8 


» 


-•014 


9 „ 


+ •028 


9 


» 


+ •004 


10 „ 


+ •010 


10 


j> 


+ •014 


11 „ 


+ •002 


11 


3> 


+ •021 


Noon 


-•015 


Mic 


nig 


'ht+-025 



In such situations, during night, the whole surface of the region is cooled 
by radiation below the air above it, and the air in immediate contact with the 
ground becoming also cooled, a system of descending air-currents sets in over 
the whole face of the country bounding the deep valley. The direction and 
velocity of these descending currents are modified by the irregularities of the 
ground, and, like currents of water, they converge in the bottom of the valleys, 
which they fill to a considerable height with the cold air they bring down from 
the sides of the mountains. This cold and relatively dense air rises above the 
barometers which happen to be down in the valley, with the result that a high 
mean pressure is maintained during the night. In this month at Gries, 
pressure during the coldest time of the night is maintained about 0'40 inch 
above what it would be in the open country. On the other hand, during the 
day, these deep valleys become highly heated by the sun, and a strong ascend- 
ing current is early formed, under which pressure falls unusually low. The 
result is a diurnal range of pressure of 097 inch, — a range quite tropical in 
amount. The same law of the diurnal distribution of pressure holds even in 
such shallow valleys as the Thames, observations at Greenwich and Kew for 
the five years ending with 1880 showing a relatively higher pressure at Kew 
during the night and lower during the day than occurs at Greenwich ; and the 
differences are greatest in the months of the year when the diurnal range of 
temperature is greatest. From the position, this does not occur at the Low- 
Level Observatory at Fort- William. The whole of this discussion has important 
bearings on the diurnal variation in the wind's velocity on the top of Ben 
Nevis, in common with all high-level observatories situated on true peaks. 

Diurnal Variation of the Force of the Wind. — The observations of the force 
of the wind have been made hourly by estimation, the scale adopted being a 
modified form of Beaufort's scale, in which represents a calm, and 12 the 
highest wind which occurs at the Observatory. Much attention was given 
from the first to secure that the estimations of force were made on the same 
method by all the staff. These efforts towards real uniformity have been 
unusually successful, as evidenced by the frequent comparisons made independ- 



METEOROLOGY OE BEN NEVIS. XXXV 

ently by the observers in all seasons, hours, and weathers. Generally the 
observations are wanting for the same hours that the temperature observations 
are wanting ; and as in the case of temperature, the omitted hours have been 
interpolated, aided by occasional remarks in the sheets of daily observations ; 
and since the omissions nearly all occurred in rough and stormy weather, the 
interpolations are tolerably correct. 

An anemometer, specially designed by Professor Chrystal for the Observa- 
tory, was erected in October 1884. Unfortunately, however, in the colder 
months, the deposition of ice crystals renders all anemometers utterly useless 
except on rare occasions, and during a brief season of the year. An important 
service has, however, been rendered by this anemometer. A sufficient number 
of observations of the wind's velocity have been obtained by it to enable Mr 
Omond to assign numerical equivalents in miles to the estimations of the force 
of the wind.* The equivalents to force are as follow : — 



Estimation Scale. 


Equivalent in 


miles per hour 


1 


5 miles. 


2 


12 


» 


3 


21 


» 


4 


30 


J3 


5 


39 


3) 


6 


50 


y> 


7 


61 


?» 


8 


73 


)> 


9 


85 


") 


10 
11 


96 

108 


"I Higher 


12 


120 


J 



For the higher velocities the number of observations with the anemometer 
was insufficient for a trustworthy comparison. 

The daily maximum velocity of the wind (Table IV.) occurs during the 
night, and the minimum during the day. The daily differences are greatest in 
summer and least in winter. In summer the maximum, 2 21, occurs at 4 a.m., 
and the minimum, 1*68, at 2 p.m., or at the rate of 14 and 10 miles an hour 
respectively. In winter the daily extremes are 3*45 at 4 a.m. and 315 at 2 p.m., 
or 26 and 23 miles an hour. It will be observed that while on the mean of 
the year the maximum may be considered as occurring during the four hours 
from midnight to 4 a.m., the minimum is spread over eight hours from noon 
to 7 p.m. Another peculiar feature of the daily curves is a slightly marked 
secondary maximum from 3 to 5 p.m. during the five months from April to 
August, a peculiarity which also appears in the annual curve. These results are 
the reverse of what obtains in lower situations and over extensive plateaux, or 
where the wind, before reaching the Observatory, has blown over some extent 

* See Proceedings, vol. xiii. p. 839. 



XXXVi METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 

of the earth's surface. In all such situations, the maximum velocity is during 
the day and the minimum during the night. At Pike's Peak, the velocity of 
the wind is about 6 miles per hour greater in the early morning than at noon. 

As regards the months, the maximum wind force occurs from November to 
March, the mean of the five months being at the rate of 310, or 22 miles an hour, 
and the minimum force 1*91 from June to August, or 11 miles an hour, the 
difference being thus 11 miles. The maximum velocity of the wind on Ben 
Nevis occurs therefore during the coldest season of the year, and the coldest 
hours of the day, and the minimum velocity during the warmest season and the 
warmest hours of the day approximately. 

The occurrence of the greatest velocity during winter is to a considerable 
extent to be accounted for by this season being the stormiest period of the year, 
when steep barometric gradients, and the strong winds so often the accompani- 
ments of the cyclones that make their tracks over the British Islands are of most 
frequent occurrence. But there is another cause which results in the prevalence 
of stronger winds at High-Level Stations. At High-Level Stations in tropical 
regions, there is little difference of temperature and atmospheric pressure 
observed throughout the year. Thus, at Medellin, in Columbia, 6°12" lat. 
N'., and 75° '45" long. W., and 4951 feet above the sea, the mean barometers for 
January and July are 25158 inches and 25174 inches, and the temperatures are 
709 and 70 o, 5. But in higher latitudes, where there is considerable difference 
between the summer and winter temperatures, pressures also differ greatly. On 
Pike's Peak, 14,134 feet above the sea, where the mean temperature of January 
is 2 0- 5 and July 40° "0, the corresponding pressures are 17*493 inches, and 
18*077 inches, being thus fully half an inch higher in summer than in winter, 
even though pressure at comparatively low levels in that part of America are 
much less in summer than in winter. Since, owing to the marked diminution of 
pressure at great heights in the atmosphere during the cold months of the 
year, barometric gradients, greatly steeper than in summer, are formed in 
extra tropical regions in winter for the prevailing westerly upper currents of 
the atmosphere. From this cause doubtless the wind force on Ben Nevis 
is largely augmented during the winter months. 

It is quite otherwise with the manner of the distribution of the wind velo- 
cities during the twenty-four hours of the clay which is so marked a feature of 
the meteorology of Ben Nevis, as well as of all High-Level Stations, situated on 
peaks, from which we have observations. In these situations, the maximum 
occurs during the night, and the minimum during the day, in all months of the 
year. The distinct, but not strongly accented secondary maximum that occurs 
early in the afternoon of the summer months, may be here referred to as 
evidence that the causes giving rise to the daily maximum wind velocity at 
these hours of the day at lower levels are felt at the Observatory only, however, 



METEOEOLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. xxxvii 

as causing a slight variation in the portion of the diurnal curve from 10 a.m. to 
8 p.m., when the wind force is less than the daily mean. 

But further, the diurnal variation peculiar to truly high-level stations, or 
those placed on mountain peaks, is shown by observations to occur on Ben Nevis 
during continued periods of high winds. The longest continued storm extended 
over seven days without intermission, from February 15 to 21, 1885, the 
wind remaining steadily in the S.E., except on the 20th and 21st, when it 
occasionally veered to S. and S.S.W. During that time, the mean hourly force 
was 8*21, or about 75 miles an hour, the mean hourly maximum being 88 miles 
from 5 to 6 a.m., and the minimum 65 miles from 4 to 5 p.m. Thus the diurnal 
variation during this remarkable storm was well marked, the difference between 
the hours of greatest and mean velocity being 23 miles. 

In explanation of this diurnal variation in the wind's velocity on mountain 
peaks, we may revert to what has been said as to the high barometer main- 
tained in deep narrow valleys during the night, as the result of cold air-currents 
from the adjoining slopes which the chilling effects of terrestrial radiation set 
in motion. These masses of cold air, accumulated in the valleys, give rise to 
furious blasts of wind blowing down the valleys during the night. Now, since 
these down-rushing winds must necessarily be fed from higher levels than those 
of the mountain itself, it follows that the winds prevailing on the peak of the 
mountain are really the winds of a higher level, and blow therefore with the 
greater velocity due to that greater height ; and the increased velocity is kept 
up so long as the cold currents occasioned by terrestrial radiation continue to 
be poured down to the bottom of the valleys. On the other hand, during the 
warmer hours of the day, barometric pressure is abnormally low, owing to the 
super-heating of these valleys, as contrasted with the temperature of the sur- 
rounding region. This gives rise to a warm wind blowing up the valleys during 
the hottest hours of the day, and an ascending current close to the sides of the 
mountain, up to its very summit. Now, since no inconsiderable portion of this 
ascending current, whose horizontal velocity is necessarily much retarded, 
mingles with the air-current proper to the level of the peak, it follows that 
the prevailing wind on the peak must be retarded during the hottest hours of 
the day. 

Diurnal Variation in the Amount of Cloud. — The hourly means of the 
amount of cloud on scale to 10, during the four years, are given in Table VI. 
The mean of the whole year is 8 "4 — the maximum being 8 "8 in January, and 
the minimum 7 9 in April, the monthly amounts thus showing but little differ- 
ence throughout the year. The curve of diurnal variation for the year is of 
the simplest description, being above the mean from 8 a.m. to 7 p.m., and under 
it from 8 p.m. to 5 a.m. These features of the curves appear in their most 
pronounced form from April to September. The close agreement with the 



xxxvill METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 

corresponding curves of temperature indicate the close relations of the two 
classes of phenomena. The hours of the clay and the months of the year when 
solar radiation is strongest, and the ascending air-currents consequently also 
strongest, are the times when the sky is most clouded. On the other hand, the 
times when terrestrial radiation is strongest, and descending air-currents now 
play the chief part, cloud is less and skies are clearer. 

Diurnal Variation of the Rainfall. — The hourly observation of rain and 
other forms of precipitation commenced on June 24, 1884. These observa- 
tions are made with considerable difficulty, but the staff of observers have 
spared no labour to make them as complete and accurate as the circumstances 
under which they are made admit of. The mean monthly amounts for each 
hour for the 3| years are given in Table V. It is premature, owing to the brief 
period over which the observations extend, to attempt to draw any satisfactory 
conclusions from the results. The means for the seasons and the year seem, 
however, to point to an excess above the daily means from 10 a.m. to 9 p.m., 
and a deficiency during the other hours. 

Diurnal Variation of Sunshine. — A sunshine recorder was added to the 
instruments in the end of February 1884. The mean hourly amounts for the 
months, seasons, and year are given in Table VII. For the four years the mean 
number of hours annually was 669, or about 15 per cent, of the possible sun- 
shine. The month of most sunshine was June 1887, the number of hours 
being 206 ; then follow August 1885 and May 1884, with 116 and 106 hours 
respectively; the months of least sunshine were January and October 1886, 
the hours being respectively 15 and 16. As regards the three complete years 
for which there are observations, there were 680 hours of sunshine in 1885, 576 
hours in 1886, and 898 for 1887, being 16, 14, and 20 per cent, respectively of 
the possible sunshine. 

The most notable feature of the curves showing the partition of the sunshine 
among the hours of the day is the greater amount before noon than after it, 
in spring, summer, and autumn. In these nine months there are 306 hours 
sunshine before noon, and 285 hours after it ; whereas in the three winter 
months the numbers are 35 and 45 hours. The mean monthly amounts of the 
three consecutive hours of most sunshine are 13*1 hours, from 11 A.M. to 2 p.m. 
in winter; 21 7 hours, from 9 a.m. to noon in spring; 19*2 hours, from 7 a.m. 
to 10 a.m. in summer; and 15*8 hours, from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. in autumn. The 
diminution in the hours of sunshine which occurs later on in the day is doubt- 
less occasioned by the air currents which ascend from the heated sides of the 
mountain during the warmer hours of the day, and the larger amount of cloud 
arising from the condensation of the aqueous vapour which necessarily follows. 

In July 1885 there were 162 hours of sunshine, but in July 1886 only 51 
hours. In these two months, which represent fairly well the extremes of weather 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. XXXIX 

experienced at the Observatory as respects sunshine and cloud, it is interesting 
to note that their diurnal curves of atmospheric pressure were all but identical 
as regards the amplitude of the daily range and the times of occurrence of the 
two maxima and minima. A blazing sun daily pours its rays on the atmo- 
sphere, and a thick envelope of cloud or its absence has apparently but little 
influence on the thermodynamic effect of the solar rays as expressed in the 
oscillation of the diurnal curve of pressure. 

Miscellaneous. 

But in addition to the usual routine work of a Meteorological Observatory of 
the first order, other observations have been carried on, mostly of a novel character, 
for which the meteorology of Ben Nevis affords exceptional facilities. Most of 
these observations have been at least partially discussed, and the results published 
by the Royal Society of Edinburgh and the Scottish Meteorological Society, of 
which the following is a brief resume : — 

Formation of Snow Crystals from Fog. — This is one of the most striking 
phenomena to be observed at high-level stations. As Ben Nevis is situated in the 
path of the Atlantic cyclones, with their vapour-laden wind systems, the formation 
of snow crystals on the Observatory and all surrounding objects exposed to the 
drifting fogs when temperature is low proceeds often at an astonishingly rapid rate. 
The forms and arrangements of the crystals vary with the surface to which they 
adhere, but all belong to the feathery or fir-cone type, the branches lying at an 
angle of 30°, with the main axis pointing to windward. On a flat board they 
gather first and most abundantly near its edges, forming a beautiful border round 
it, while the centre remains clear, thus suggesting interesting conclusions regarding 
the relative velocities of the wind at different points of the board. On the other 
hand, a round post shows an almost uniformly disposed mass of crystals all over its 
windward half, and so accurately do they point to windward, that it is possible to 
trace changes in the direction of the wind from the successive layers of crystals at 
different angles. The rate of growth of the crystals varies with the density of the 
fog and the speed of the wind. For the winds and fogs of most usual occurrence a 
growth of about half an inch per hour is the average, but under exceptionally favour- 
able conditions 2 inches per hour has been reached. With a damp feeling in the 
air, the crystals are icy and hard; but with a temperature considerably under 32° 
the crystals are looser in texture, and are easily brushed away. On one occasion, 
during the winter of 1884-85, a post 4 inches square grew into a slab of crystalline 
snow of about 5 feet broad and 1 foot thick in less than a week, strong south- 
easterly winds with low temperatures prevailing during the whole time. 

The effect of this growth seriously affects all instruments placed outside the 
Observatory. The cups of Robinson's anemometer are no longer hemispheres, but 



xl METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 

irregular hollow bodies bristling all over with pointed crystals, and the arms are 
increased to many times their original thickness, and ultimately the whole instru- 
ment becomes an irregular mass of immovable snow, and of course no observation 
with it is possible. If the formation of the crystals begin while the anemometer 
is still turning, the mode of formation is interesting, as throwing light on the 
behaviour of the wind at different points of the instruments. The crystals form 
mostly on the outside of the cups and round their edges, leaving the insides pretty 
clear; the arms carrying the cups get completely covered; and on the diagonal 
stays supporting the arms the crystals show a beautiful twined structure, pointing 
downwards and outwards on each side. 

But the most serious consequences are those which affect the thermometers. 
The louvres of the Stevenson's screen for the thermometers become serrated with 
rows of teeth, which quickly coalesce into a solid mass, completely preventing the 
possibility of any circulation of the air inside the box. In short, these instruments 
are no longer in contact with the free atmosphere, and unless a fresh box is fixed 
up by the observers no observation of the outside temperature of the air would be 
possible. As it is impossible to devise any arrangement by which the instrument 
for the temperature of the air could be kept clear of these crystals, or by which it 
would be secured that it would be constantly exposed in the free atmosphere, the 
temperature can never be recorded by self-registering instruments. And since 
barometric observations are but of small value unless accompanied with simul- 
taneous observations of the temperature of the air, it follows that the services of a 
staff of observers for hourly observations of temperature by night as well as by day 
can never be dispensed with. 4 '" 

Winds and Rainfall of Ben Nevis. — Mr Omond has examined this subject 
minutely from the observations of 1885 and 1886. From this examination it was 
found that the order of the frequency of the winds on the top of the mountain was, 
with the percentages of frequency, N. 15; S.E. 14; S.W. 14; W. 13; S. 12; N.E. 11; 
N.W. 9; E. 7; and calms, 5. In each of the two years, E. and N.W. winds showed 
the least degree of frequency. 

For the two years 1885 and 1886 the winds, arranged in the order of their 
wetness, with the percentage of the whole rainfall that fell with each wind, were 
W. 21; S.W. 20; N.W. 18; N. 13; S. 8; N.E. 7; S.E. 5; E. 3; and calms, 5. Thus 
with N., N.W., W. and S.W. winds, 72 per cent, of the whole falls, whilst for the 
other half of the compass only 23 per cent, falls. Hence the westerly winds are by 
far the rainiest, and easterly winds the driest in 1886. The year was divided nearly 
equally into cyclonic and non-cyclonic periods, there being 4335 hours of the 
former and 4425 hours of the latter. Nearly four-fifths of the whole rainfall fell 
during cyclonic periods. In cyclonic periods the percentage of precipitation with 

* " On the Formation of Snow Crystals from Fog," by R. T. Omond, Jour. Scot. Met. Soc, Third Series, 
vol. i. p. 190. 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. xli 

each wind is S.W. 25; W. 20; N.W. 16; N. 11; S. 9; N.E. 7; S.E. 5; E. 2; and 
calms, 6. The non-cyclonic rainfall, on the other hand, is almost wholly confined 
to N. 26, N.W. 23, and W. 22 ; in other words, 71 per cent, falls with winds from 
these three directions. 

It is remarkable that when an anticyclone is to the north or east of Ben Nevis 
the air is usually very dry ; but, on the other hand, if it lies to the south or west, 
and its centre not very close to the mountain, fog, drizzling rain, or snow prevail. 
This explains the remarkable dryness of the south-easterly winds of anticyclones at 
this height, and the equally remarkable wetness of north-westerly winds. Both in 
cyclones and in anticyclones the N.W. wind is the wettest, and the E. the driest. The 
N.W. winds do not often blow ; but when they do occur, they are always accom- 
panied by great precipitation, — actually great in cyclones, and relatively so in 
anticyclones. On the other hand, S.E. winds, which are so frequently very wet 
winds at lower levels, have on Ben Nevis a totally different character, being, with 
the exception of E. winds, the driest of all the winds, both as regards the total 
precipitations accompanying them and their mean hourly rainfall.* 

Diurnal Variation in the Direction of the Summer Winds. — The most cursory 
examination of the wind records shows that there is no strongly-marked variation 
in their direction ; nothing, for example, comparable to the land and sea breezes of 
our coasts. In carrying out this inquiry Mr Omond reduced, by means of a trans- 
verse table, to north-south and west-east co-ordinates each observation during the 
summer months of 1884 and 1885, taking account of the velocity of the wind as 
well as its direction, so as to obtain an approximation to the mean air motion at 
each hour of the day. The scale for wind force at the Observatory is analogous to 
the Beaufort scale, running from Oto 12. The estimations in use by the observers 
were compared with the results when working the Robinson's anemometer at the 
same times, from which it was ascertained that the equivalents in miles per hour 
were the following : — 

Scale to 12, . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 

Equivalent in miles 

per hour, . . 5 12 21 31 39 50 63 73 (85) (96) (108) (120) 

The observations from the Robinson's anemometer above force 8 could not 
be used to determine the equivalents for the higher velocities with accuracy, but 
by plotting the results on a diagram, and continuing the line into the higher values, 
the bracketed numbers were obtained. The result indicates that the velocity of 
the wind in a first-class Ben Nevis gale, such as occurred, for example, in February 
1885, is about 120 miles an hour. 

When the observations were dealt with in this way the winds indicated a well- 
marked diurnal variation. From 3 to 8 a.m. there is a northerly wind of about 

* "The Winds and Rainfall of Ben Nevis," Jour. Scot. Met. Soc, Third Series, vol i. p. 275 ; and vol. ii. p. 18. 
VOL. XXXIV. J 



xlii METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 

2| miles an hour ; and from 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. S. or S.S.E. wind of about 3 miles an 
Lour. At the other hours the differences are small and variable in direction, except 
about midnight, when there is an indication of a moderate difference in the same 
direction as the mean daily wind. This, however, may really be traced to the 
well-marked increased velocity of the Ben Nevis winds at this time of the day. 

The most marked features in the diurnal variation are the northerly winds shortly 
after sunrise, and the southerly winds about noon. Mr Omond is inclined to the 
opinion that the shape of Ben Nevis affords the explanation of this variation. The 
ridge of the hill top runs east and west ; the deep gorge on the north side is pene- 
trated by the sun for only a few hours after sunrise in summer ; and on the other 
side, a steep slope goes down into Glen Nevis at an angle of about 30°. In the 
early morning, the sun's rays heat the northern valley, while the glen on the south 
side is still in shade, thus the heated air from the northern gorge ascends and flows 
over the summit as a northerly wind. On the other hand, as the day advances 
and the sun acquires southing, the northern valley falls into shade, while Glen 
Nevis, being now heated by the sun's rays, the current rising from it flows over 
the- summit as a southerly wind.* 

Thermal Windrose. — This subject was investigated by Mr Rankin, from 
the three years' observations from June 1884 to May 1887. The eight directions 
of wind in the order of their temperature are — S., 32°'6 ; S.W., 32°"5 ; W., 31°'4 ; 
N.W. and S.E., each 30°'2 ; E., 27°"8 ; N., 27 0, 6 ; and N.E., 26 0, 5. Thus the warmest 
wind is S., 32° '6, and the coldest N.E., 26° "5, the difference between the two being 
6°'l. The warmest point oscillates between S.W. in winter, passes through S. to S.E. 
in July and September. Easterly winds (S.E., E., N.E.) have 20°*7, but westerly 
winds only 15° '6 as their mean annual range, thus showing the greater influence of 
the land than of the sea in raising the temperature of the winds. Winds from S. , 
S.W., W. and N.W. indicate an annual minimum in January, and winds from N. 
N.E., E. and S.E. in March. Winds from N.E. and N.W. have the maximum in 
August, but all other directions in July.f 

Temperatures at different Heights above Ground. — The results of a month's 
observations of two sets of temperature in Stevenson's screens, one at the normal 
height of 48 inches, the other at 112 inches above ground, have been discussed 
by Mr Omond. The observations extended over part of July and the whole of 
August 1886. 

Along with these shade temperature readings were taken of a black bulb in 
vacuo. The thermometer inside the glass jacket was a common thermometer, with 
the bulb blackened in the usual way, showing therefore the solar radiation at the 
time of observation, instead of, as in the usual maximum black bulb, giving only 

* " The Diurnal Variation in the Direction of the Summer Winds on Ben Nevis," by E. T. Omond, Proc. 
/'oil. Hoc, vol. xiii. p. 839. 

t " The Thermal Windrose at the Ben Nevis Observatory," by Angus Rankin, Proc. Roy. Soc, vol. xiv. 
j). 41(). 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. xli 



11 



the greatest intensity since being last set. With this thermometer it is remark- 
able that the maximum occurred almost exactly at noon, and the mean hourly 
diurnal varied from the minimum 38° '1 at 4 a.m. to the maximum 67°"0 at noon, 
showing thus a variation of 28°'9 in the temperature thus observed. 

Quite different was the temperature shown by the thermometers in the 
Stevenson screens, in both cases the minimum occurring at 5 a.m. and the maxi- 
mum 4 p.m. At 48 inches above ground the minimum was 38°'4, and the maxi- 
mum 42°*0 ; and at 112 inches the figures were 38°'5 and 41° # 8, being thus nearly 
the same. The diurnal variation was 3° "6 and 3° '3 respectively, the smaller 
variation, as was to have been expected, at the greater height. During the time 
there was an entire absence of calm days with bright sunshine, when the stones 
which strew the summit get so heated as to be disagreeable to handle, and conse- 
quently the diurnal variation was less than would otherwise have been the case. 
Two days only could be characterised as fine days, and on these days a relatively 
greater range was observed at the lesser elevation.* 

Rainband Observations. — After some preliminary and fragmentary observations, 
rainband observations began to be a regular part of the work of the Observatory in 
June 1885. The instrument employed is one of Hilger's small pocket spectroscopes 
fitted with a glass cap as a slit-protector. It is 2 inches long, and shows the 
prominent lines in the solar spectrum very distinctly, and the rainband as a 
separate line. The part of the sky observed is always about 40° above the south- 
western horizon. The observations were discussed by Mr Rankin in 1887, and 
were compared with the rainfall and temperature. The mean results show that a 
heavier rainband indicates a heavier rainfall. The rainfall is greater for the three 
hours than for the twelve hours after the observation for the higher values of the 
scale ; and it is less for the lower values. Hence the observed higher values are 
accompanied or soon followed by a heavy rainfall, which tends to become less 
heavy in the next twelve hours. The lower values, on the other hand, though they 
may be neither accompanied nor followed in the next three hours by any rain, are 
followed by a considerable rainfall before the twelve hours are run. 

A great many of the anomalies the observations show are explained when the 
effects of temperature are taken into consideration. Thus for any rainband value 
the precipitation is less with a higher, and greater with a lower temperature. 
Again, when the temperature falls after the observation, the subsequent rainfall is 
greater ; but when it rises, the rainfall is less than it would have been if the tem- 
perature had remained constant. The very highest values, which were almost all 
accompanied or followed by heavy rain, appear to be characteristic of, or part and 
parcel of the cyclones which sweep in from the Atlantic laden with warmth and 
moisture. 

* " Temperatures at Different Heights above Ground," by E. T. Omond, Proc. Boy. Soc, vol. xiv. 
p. 24. 



xliv METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 

When heavy rain is the result of moisture-laden air ascending from lower levels, 
the values of the rainband are not affected by it. There is another state of weather 
in which precipitation appears to be indicated by the spectroscope, but no rain 
follows. This occurs when snow crystals are rapidly deposited from the fog on 
the windward side of exposed objects, as already described. 

Occasionally, the observers are above the clouds, with clear sky and bright 
sunshine overhead, while all other hills are covered with a continuous white sheet 
of cloud, extending to the horizon in every direction. In such conditions a strong 
rainband is always obtained in June, July, and August, in a horizontal line close 
over the clouds, although the rainband may be absent on the blue sky. About 
half an hour before sunrise on 18th December 1885, the upper-glow was very fine; 
on it the rainband was 3 ; but when the sun appeared the rainband on his disc was 
beyond the scale of the instrument. It was estimated at 12, being the highest yet 
observed. 

The rainband observations of 1st July 1886 are specially valuable. The fol- 
lowing were the readings : — 

At 6 a.m. the value was 6 

9 4 

,, noon ,, 2 

„ 6 p.m. „ 2 

At 6 a.m. temperature was 36°*7, at noon 40°"1, and at 6 p.m. 43 c, 5. Till 
1 p.m. the Ben was enveloped in mist, accompanied with a slight drizzle ; at 2 p.m. 
it cleared, at 3 p.m. the humidity had fallen to 62, and before sunset upwards 
of six hours of sunshine was recorded. The decreasing rainband indicated that the 
moist air aloft was slipping away or sinking below the level of the summit, and 
that the air which was taking its place was comparatively dry. This increased 
dryness and warmth of the air indicated that an anticyclone was forming and 
settling over this part of Europe.* 

St Elmo's Fire. — During the five winters from 1883 to 1888, fifteen cases of 
St Elmo's fire were recorded. These all occurred during the night time, and during 
the winter months from September to February. It is difficult, if not impossible, 
to observe this meteor in ordinary daylight, or in strong twilight, and this con- 
sideration perhaps accounts for the absence of recorded cases during day and during 
the summer months. On one occasion it was heard in the day time, being identi- 
fied by the peculiar and unmistakable hissing sound which accompanies it. 

These fifteen cases have been discussed by Mr Rankin, in connection with the 
observations of pressure, temperature, wind direction, and rainfall for 30 hours 
before and 24 hours after the time of occurrence of St Elmo's fire. It is shown 
that the weather which precedes, accompanies, and follows it has very definite 

* "Rainband Observations on Ben Nevis," by Angus Rankin, Jour. Scot. Met. Soc, Third Series, vol. i. p. 279. 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. xlv 

characteristics, not only on Ben Nevis, but also over the west of Europe generally. 
Indeed, so well marked is the weather, and so notorious for its stormy character, 
that the observers regard it as a distinct type of weather, and call it by the name 
of St Elmo's weather. 

From 30 hours before St Elmo's fire is seen, the barometer falls steadily till 6 
hours before, and thereafter rises till 16 hours after the appearance, with a slight 
break in the rise at the time of occurrence of the phenomenon. The cases occur 
during the well-defined depression of a cyclone, generally about 6 hours after the 
centre of lowest barometer has passed. 

As regards temperature, a maximum is reached about 24 hours before St Elmo's 
fire is seen; for between 24 and 16 hours before the display, temperature is on 
the whole steady, but from 16 hours before, temperature falls continuously till 16 
hours after, when a minimum temperature is reached. The rate of fall is more 
rapid before than after St Elmo's fire is seen. It was by noting the variations 
in the temperature before the display of this phenomenon that on several 
occasions successful forecasts of the phenomenon were made some hours before its 
appearance. 

The chief points to be noted with respect to the wind are that till from about 
8 or 10 hours before the appearance of St Elmo's fire the wind is from a direc- 
tion south of west, and thereafter from a direction north of west ; that from 
18 hours till 6 hours before its occurrence, the wind steadily veers, from which 
time till 10 hours after its appearance the veering nearly ceases ; and that the 
mean winds are all in the western half of the compass. 

The rainfall observations show two distinct maximum periods, viz., between 10 
and 6 hours before St Elmo's fire is seen, and again at the time of its occurrence ; 
while there are also two equally defined minima, one between 30 and 26 hours 
before, and the other 15 to 18 hours after its appearance. The maximum at the 
time of its occurrence is wholly due to the heavy showers of snow and snow-hail 
that accompany the displays. This snow-hail is in the form of small cones, with 
spherical bases, and is hard and dry, but not icy. 

The Weather Charts at the times show that the depression of which St Elmo's 
fire is an accompaniment, comes from the Atlantic, and that the centre passes 
eastwards somewhere to the north of Ben Nevis, this being substantially the part 
of cyclones where electrical displays are of most frequent occurrence. 

A more particular examination of the Weather Charts of the Meteorological 
Office indicate that somewhere to the south or south-east of the British Islands, 
usually over the south of France and the Spanish Peninsula, there was an anti- 
cyclone at the time ; and to the west or north of Scotland the low depression of a 
cyclone. Between the two regions the barometric gradient was chiefly for S.W. 
or W. winds, and was generally a pretty steep one. So long as the anticyclone 
maintained its position to the south-east, so long was the weather of the British 



xlvi METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 

Islands disturbed by a series of Atlantic cyclones, that usually passed in a north- 
easterly direction with the paths of their centres lying off our west and north-west 
coasts. Thunder and lightning occurred at lower levels over the British Islands 
on several of the nights that St Elmo's fire appeared on Ben Nevis. Only on one 
occasion, on 4th February 1887, was thunder and lightning observed on Ben Nevis 
about the times of occurrence of St Elmo's fire. On that occasion the thunder- 
storm was two hours subsequent to St Elmo's fire. 

It deserves to be specially noted that well-nigh invariably St Elmo's Fire is 
not a prognostic of any improvement in the weather, but in almost every case 
another cyclone followed, ushering in another spell of bad weather.* 

Thunderstorms. — From the opening of the Observatory in December 1883 to 
March 1890, 56 thunderstorms have been observed. These have been discussed 
by Mr R. C. Mossman. They are phenomena of very irregular occurrence, 
eight having occurred in 1887, while none whatever were observed during the two 
previous years. On the other hand, five occurred during January 1890. Thunder- 
storms, including lightning without thunder, are essentially autumn and winter 
phenomena, 70 per cent, of the whole having occurred from September to February. 
The winter maximum of thunderstorms is thus a well-marked feature in the meteor- 
ology of Ben Nevis. Only two cases have been recorded in April, and none at all 
in March, these being the months of minimum frequency in all parts of Scotland. 

Thunderstorms are rare in summer, only eight cases having occurred during the 
four months from May to August. On the other hand, they are twice as frequent 
during summer at Fort- William as at the Observatory, so that a considerable 
number must be below the summit of the mountain. 

The hourly distribution of thunderstorms on Ben Nevis shows a distinct evening- 
maximum, nineteen cases having occurred during the three hours ending 9 p.m., 
while there were only two in the seven hours ending 2 p.m. A secondary maximum 
occurs at 7 in the morning. 

The partition of the thunderstorms in relation to the hours of sunrise and 
sunset gives very interesting results, it being found that all the summer cases, with 
only six exceptions, which were cases of lightning only, occurred when the sun 
was above the horizon ; while out of thirty-seven cases observed in the autumn and 
winter, thirty-two took place when the sun was below the horizon. Only one case 
of lightning without thunder was observed when the sun was above the horizon, 
thus resembling the similar electrical phenomena observed over the open sea during 
the " Challenger" Expedition. As regards sunrise and sunset, the thunderstorms at 
Fort-William show a similar distribution to what obtains at the Observatory. 

Mr Mossman compared all these cases of thunderstorms with the Daily Weather 
Charts at the times of their occurrence, and clearly showed that in winter they are 
associated with a well-marked type of weather, having low pressure to the W. or 
* " St Elmo's Fire on Ben Nevis," by Angus Rankin, Jour. Scot. Met. Soc, Third Series, vol. ii. p. 191. 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. xlvii 

N.W., with high pressure over the Iberian Peninsula; in other words, the identical 
weather conditions under which Mr Rankin has shown the instances of St Elmo's 
fire have occurred. The winter thunderstorms invariably occur on the S.E. side 
of the cyclone's centre, with the easterly passage of which they appear to be 
intimately connected. On several occasions, when the lowest barometric reading 
of the cyclone occurred many hours before or after the thunderstorm, a slight fall 
in pressure took place at the time of the thunderstorm. 

Temperature is little affected either by the winter or summer thunderstorms. 
Such rapid falls of 5° or 10° in an hour, as frequently accompany or immediately 
follow the thunderstorms of lower levels, have not been observed to occur at the 
height of the Observatory. Strong squalls, from 60 to 80 miles an hour, frequently 
accompany the thunderstorm in a manner more uniform and marked than lower 
down in the plains below. 

The thunderstorms at the High-Level Observatories on the Continent — at Santis, 
8215 feet; the Rigi, 5905 feet; and the Great St Bernard, 8131 feet — have also 
been examined during the same years. These all show the thunderstorms to be 
restricted to the period of the year between April and October, thus proving that 
these Observatories are quite outside the sphere of winter thunderstorms. Further, 
90 per cent, of the recorded cases occur in the day time between the hours of sun- 
rise and sunset, being thus in marked contrast to Ben Nevis, not only as regards 
the season of the year, but also as regards the hours of the day. Indeed, thunder- 
storms in winter are not met with at any of these continental High Level 
Observatories.* 

Daily Mean Temperatures. — These have been calculated by Mr Omond, both 
for the Observatory and Fort- William, for the six years ending 1889. The coldest 
day (19°*1) is March 3, and it is evident from the general trend of the temperature 
curve, that the true annual minimum occurs in the beginning of March, being 
from four to six weeks later than in the low country, but a little before the time 
of the annual minimum of the water of the Atlantic. 

The time of maximum temperature is not so clearly marked, the day of highest 
mean temperature (45°'5) is July 2, but there is a secondary maximum (43°"2) on 
August 8, thus agreeing with most land stations in having a double summer maximum. 

It is thus plain that while the time of the winter minimum is delayed at this 
high level, the time of occurrence of the summer maxima is nearly a fortnight 
earlier than at lower levels, — features in the annual distribution of temperature 
which Ben Nevis has in common with other High-Level Observatories. 

The most striking feature in the annual curve of temperature is the sudden rise 
in the middle of June. Thus on the 15th the mean 34°'8, on the 18th, 44 0, 9, or an 
increase of 10°'l in three days. This rise is well marked in each of the six years. 

* " Thunderstorms at Ben Nevis Observatory," by E. C. Mossman, Jour. Scot. Met. Soc, Third Series, 
vol. iii. 



xlviii METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 

On the other hand, the most marked permanent fall occurs about the autumnal 
equinox.* 

Hygrometry. — A series of elaborate hygrometric observations was made at the 
Observatory from August to October, 1885, by Mr H. N. Dickson, under the direc- 
tion of Professor Tait and Dr Buchan. In this investigation along with the 
ordinary dry and wet bulb hygrometer, Professor Chrystal's direct hygrometer, in 
use at the Observatory, was employed. The results obtained are of very consider- 
able value in determining how far Glaisher's factors, so largely used by meteor- 
ologists in such inquiries, can be safely used. As regards the remarkably dry states 
of the air, which form so prominent a feature in the climatology of Ben Nevis, 
Glaisher's factors were found to be altogether inapplicable, and for such hygro- 
metric observations a specially constructed set of tables is therefore required.! 

Earth Currents in the Telegraph Cable. — Hourly observations were made by 
Mr Dickson from 20th September to 4th October 1885. The curve of hourly 
values, obtained by taking the mean deflection for each hour, showed a well-marked 
daily variation. During the early part of the night, a current passes through the 
cable up the hill, and appears to reach a maximum at 9 p.m. and again at 2 a.m. 
Two hours after a rapid diminution sets in, and at 5 a.m. the current is reversed. 
Immediately after this the potential at the summit again falls relatively to that at 
Fort-William, and then a current ascends, increasing in strength to a well-marked 
maximum at 10 a.m. This is succeeded by another equalisation, and the current 
is again reversed about 1 p.m., after which it passes down the line till about 6 p.m. 
Thereafter the current again takes an upward direction through the line, increasing- 
pretty regularly to the maximum at 9 p.m. These results were confirmed by a 
series of observations conducted by Mr Omond during the summer of 1888. 

From observations on atmospheric electricity on the summit of Dodabetta, 
Professor C. Michie Smith has shown that on the edge of a dissolving mist the 
potential is lower than the normal, but higher on the edge of a condensing mist. 
Now in nearly every case, when the top of Ben Nevis became clear for a short time, 
a strong current was coming up the line, while as soon as the summit was again 
enveloped the current was reversed. The connection between the moisture of the 
atmosphere and the earth currents is still further shown by the rainfall. During 
a fall of rain or snow, the current is almost always found to pass down the cable ; 
and, in the case of a sudden shower, the current sometimes drove the mirror of the 
galvanometer violently off the scale. A cessation of rain or snow generally had 
an exactly opposite effect. 

If it be assumed that the summit of Ben Nevis takes the potential of the 
masses of vapour covering it, and the earth-plate at the base be considered as the 

* " Daily Mean Temperatures at Ben Nevis Observatory and Fort- William," by R. T. Omond, Jour. Scot. 
Met. Soc, Third Series, vol. iii. 

t " The Hygrometry of Ben Nevis, by H. N. Dickson, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xiii. p. 957. 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. xlix 

the real earth, or zero of potential, it is obvious that these results are confirmatory 
of theory advanced by Professor Michie Smith, a conclusive proof of which would 
be of great importance in investigations connected with thunderstorms.* 

Optical Phenomena. — The resolution to erect an Observatory on Ben Nevis at 
once called attention to the fact that many branches of science, besides the ordinary 
meteorological ones, might obtain from the. Observers data of great value, not easily 
to be obtained elsewhere. Among these the very interesting Optical Phenomena 
exhibited in sunshine by mountain mists hold a prominent place. Coronse and Fog- 
bows are common enough appearances at low stations, but Glories are very rare and 
always extremely imperfect, — so much so, in fact, that the theory of their production 
is not yet certain. It became, therefore, extremely desirable that the Ben Nevis 
Observers should be instructed to look out for such appearances, and should be 
furnished with some simple means of measuring them with sufficient accuracy. As 
the measurements required are merely angular diameters of coloured rings, a very 
rudimentary apparatus amply suffices for the purpose ; and its indications, along 
with eye observations of the distribution of colours in the various rings, contain all 
that need be observed. Mr Omond has already communicated to the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh a very extensive series of measures of Glories,t from which, no doubt, 
materials for the testing of the various theories of their origin may be obtained 
(see Plate). As a check on these measurements, he has given a number of details of 
dimensions of Coronse, Rainbows, and Halos. The latter, especially, give an excellent 
test of accuracy of angular measure. 

Relations of the Observations to Weather. 

This important application of the observations to practical matters has been 
in progress for some time, and, so far as the investigation has gone, it is clear 
that considerable and especially rapid changes from the normal differences 
of temperature and pressure are frequent concomitants and precursors of 
storms, but more particularly of destructive winds during storms. Of these 
departures from the normals the most important are the cases that show 
an unusually rapid decrease of temperature with height — a result which is 
only what was to have been expected, seeing that such observations indicate 
a disturbance of the equilibrium of the atmosphere. It is well known that the 
most destructive winds that accompany tornados occur where they are preceded 
by a highly super-heated and super-saturated atmosphere near the earth's sur- 
face, and are followed by markedly colder and drier weather. These and 

* "Observations on Earth-Currents in Ben Nevis Observatory Telegraph Cable, by H. N. Dickson, 
Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xiii. p. 530. 

+ " Glories, Halos, and Corona? seen from Ben Nevis Observatory," by R. T. Omond, First Paper, 
Proc. Boy. Soc. Edin., vol. xiii. p. 500 ; Second Paper, vol. xiv. p. 314. 

vol. xxxiv. g 



1 METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 

other observations seem in favour of the idea that tornados and the most 
destructive gusts in storms, which are analogous to tornados, are the im- 
mediate effects of uprushes of warm moist air-currents and downrushes of 
colder and drier air to take their place. Now, to this important inquiry Ben 
Nevis contributes invaluable data, with its observations of sudden, rapid, and 
often short-continued changes of temperature and humidity, many of which 
are strictly limited to the upper region of the mountain, as first shown by the 
observations made by Mr Wkagge in 1882 at the eight stations on the slopes 
of Ben Nevis, from sea-level to the top, and since confirmed by the observa- 
tions at the Observatory. 

If there be conjoined with an unusually rapid rate of decrease of tempera- 
ture with height a lower sea-level pressure, calculated from the Ben Nevis 
Observatory readings, than what is actually observed at Fort- William ; that is 
to say, when the barometric observations indicate a more rapid decrease of 
temperature with height somewhere in the aerial stratum between sea-level 
and the top of the mountain than the thermometric observations alone show, 
then the indications of a coming storm become more decided. Conversely, 
the absence of any abnormally rapid decrease of temperature with height, as 
may be ascertained from all the observations, is rarely attended or followed by 
storms of wind. 

On the other hand, abnormally high temperatures are observed at the top, 
when the temperature is occasionally even higher than at Fort-William ; these 
are always restricted to the higher parts of the mountain, are not associated 
directly with storms, but are the accompaniments of anticyclones and the fine 
weather which characterises them. Indirectly, however, owing to their de- 
pendence on the cyclone with its adjoining anticyclone, it is impossible to over- 
state the value of these Ben Nevis observations in any serious investigation of 
the weather changes of north-western Europe. 

Since 1868 the Scottish Meteorological Society has, through the courtesy 
of the Commissioners of the Northern Lighthouses, been favoured with meteor- 
ological observations from all the Lighthouses, each keeper of a lighthouse being 
thus a regular observer of the Society. An important part of the keepers' 
duty is to record the hour of beginning and ending, and varying force of all 
strong winds, gales, and storms that occur. The observations made at the 
Lighthouses since December 1883, when the records of the Observatory com- 
mence, have been plotted on monthly sheets, which show graphically when and 
where storms occurred round the Scottish coasts ; and on the same sheets 
have been entered, for the respective Meteorological Districts, all cases when 
storm signals have been hoisted and kept up, under direction of the Meteor- 
ological Office. The investigation is still in progress, but the following results 
may be provisionally stated. 



METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. \{ 

If we except the cases in which the barometer at the Observatory was 
unduly lowered by high winds as above explained, by far the larger number of 
the remaining cases, on which the calculated sea-level pressure was less than 
what was actually observed at Fort-William, either preceded or accompanied 
storms ; and when the differences were unusually great, the storms were wide- 
spread and severe. Again, if we neglect the occasions during 1884, the storms 
of which have been more particularly examined, when the wind exceeded the 
rate of 30 miles an hour, there remain nine instances which, in the west and 
north of Scotland, were not followed by any storm. On eight of these occasions 
the observations did not indicate the existence of any disturbance in the lower 
stratum of the atmosphere between the Observatory and sea-level. 

It is evident from the importance of the results already arrived at that the 
Ben Nevis Observatory must be regarded as contributing towards the develop- 
ment of meteorology, and particularly of that department which deals with the 
forecasting of .the weather of the British Islands, a body of facts differing 
wholly in kind from what is or can be contributed by any other Meteorological 
Observatory or Station in the country. 

Addendum, November 5, 1890. — On the 14th July 1890, the Low-Level 
Observatory at Fort- William was completed, and the regular work of hourly 
observations of a first-class Observatory was begun. Since that date, hourly 
observations made both at the top and the bottom of the mountain are 
available in the discussion of the various meteorological problems, including 
storms and other weather changes. Arrangements have been made for the carry- 
ing on, at the two Observatories and at the Office in Edinburgh, the discussion 
and utilisation of this important work. In this discussion, more special atten- 
tion will be given to the bearings of the observations on the cyclones and anti- 
cyclones of Europe. In this connection Dr Hann has discussed the observa- 
tions made at the High-Level Meteorological Observatories on the Continent, 
which must, however, be regarded as outside the track of the European cyclones, 
and none of them can be said to have a Low-Level Observatory with which 
its observations can be compared. It is this consideration which gives their 
unique value to the Ben Nevis double set of observations, seeing it is these alone 
that contribute the data of observation toward an understanding of the vitally 
important changes which take place from sea-level to a height of from four to 
five thousand feet. 



lii METEOROLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 



LIST OF INSTRUMENTS. 

Fortin Barometer, No. 1385, made by Negretti & Zambra, London, graduated from 22*3 inches to 

3L2 inches, and reading on vernier to O002 inch; scale correction + - 006, which has been 

applied to its readings ; compared at Kew in June 1883. 
Fortin Barometer, No. 1252, made by Nigretti & Zambra, London; graduated from 230 inches to 

3L2 inches, and reading on vernier to - 002 inch; scale correction +0"010, which has been 

applied to its readings ; compared at Kew. 
Redier Aneroid Barograph, with recording papers. 

Do. Thermograph, with recording papers. 

Thermometers with Kew Certificates. — Standards Nos. 178490 and 178491, made by Adie and Wedder- 

burn, Edinburgh ; graduated from 0° to 230° and from — 30° to 235° respectively ; scale 

correction nowhere exceeding 0°T. 
Ordinary, with glass scales, Nos. 192660, 192671, 192,672, and 192677, made by Adie & Wedder- 

burn, Edinburgh ; also No. 50850 and 50852, made by Negretti & Zambra, London, but 

fitted with glass scales by Adie & Wedderburn, Edinburgh. 
Ordinary, with porcelain scales, Nos. 50851, 50953, and 50945, made by Negretti & Zambra, 

London. 
Ordinary, with cylindrical bulbs and scale numbers etched on stem No. 50524, made by Negretti 

and Zambra, London; and Nos. 63728 and 63729, made by Adie & Wedderburn, Edinburgh. 
Black Bulb in vacuo, No. 484108, by Hicks, not maximum. 
Registering Maximum, with metal scales, Nos. 117293 and 138590, made by Adie & Wedderburn, 

Edinburgh. 
Registering Minimum, with metal scales, Nos. 116918, 138545, and 138533, made by Adie and 

Wedderburn, Edinburgh. 
Registering Maximum Black Bulb in vacuo, No. 186, made by Hicks, London. 
Tliermometers without Kew Certificates. — Ordinary, with metal scale, No. 7, made by Frazer, Edin- 
burgh. 
Ordinary, with cylindrical bulb and scale numbers etched on stem, made by Kemp, Edinburgh, 

for Professor Chrystal's Hygrometer. 
Three, with different sized spherical bulbs, made by Kemp, Edinburgh. 

Turn-over Thermometers for clock, Nos. 50198 and 50199, made by Negretti & Zambra, London. 
Maximum, on wooden frames, Nos. 108 and 2113, made by Negretti & Zambra, London. 
Maximum Black Bulb in vacuo, with radiometer attached, No. 64, made by Hicks, London. 
Minimum, on wooden frames, Nos. 1447 and 1449, made by Negretti & Zambra, London. 
Minimum, with metal scale, made by Fraser, Edinburgh. 
Radiation Minimum with hollow cylindrical bulb, No. 46309, made by Hicks, London. 

The above thermometers are all graduated on the stem to single degrees. Those with Kew 

certificates are used for the ordinary observations ; their scale correction in no case exceeds 

0° - 3. Those without Kew certificates are only used occasionally, and are then compared 

with the Observatory standards, Nos. 178491, and 178490 and the corrections so found applied 

to their readings. 
Rain and Snow Gaurjes. — 

Two eight-inch Gauges, with screw taps. 
Two five-inch „ stop cocks. 

Six five-inch „ screw taps. 

The last set are those in ordinary use ; they are made all in one piece, with extended bases 

rounded underneath so as to be easily levelled when resting on snow. 
Three five-inch Measuring Glasses, graduated to 0'01 inch. 
Three Spirit-Levels. 
Glass Carboy and Funnel for collecting rain-water. 



METEOKOLOGY OF BEN NEVIS. 



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r-- in ■* cm t-h 

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CO 
CM 
CM 




to 


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in co cm o os 

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t- CM CO "* OS 

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COCO CO co cp 


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O co r— co -h 
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CM 
CO 
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to 


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»n ** cm — < cj 
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th os m t-h to 
co to >n -rH CM 
CO CM CO CO C0 


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t-h os co to m 

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CO 
CM 




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to 


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to m co c-i o 


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co co os in o 

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to 

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CM 




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to 


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m 

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to 

to 


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in 

CM 




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as 


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m 

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loirjioioic 


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52 -* cm t-h os 
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COHOCOS 
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i— t os co to in 

in t* -rH -rH ■* 


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co cm o os r— 

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CM t-. CM t-- CM 

CO -* CO t-H o 
CO CO CO coco 


oo 

CM 












to 


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22 m ■** cm t-h 

~ to to to to 


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os oo to in co 
to in m in in 


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co m co cm o 

COCO CO CO CO 


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OS 
C-l 














• os op t*- to 
fl oooo 

■■- 1 CO CO CO CO 


in •* CO CM rH 

ooooo 

COCO CO CO CO 


O osco t^-cp 

O OS O- OS OS 
CO CM CM CM CM 


in -* CO CM rH 
OS OS OS OS OS 
CM N <N C-l C-l 


O oscob-cp 
en co cb co do 

CM CI (M (M C-l 


in 

CO 
CM 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 



AT THE 



BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY 



AND AT THE 



LOW LEVEL STATION AT FORT-WILLIAM 



FROM 



DECEMBER 1883 to DECEMBER 1887. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGES 

Ben Nevis Observations, ....... 1-315 

Observatory Log-Book, ....... 316-356 

Low Level Observations at Fort-William, ..... 357-406 



BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY. — HOURLY VALUES. 



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TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXIV. 



BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY.— HOURLY VALUES. 



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CO 

Ml 


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oo 


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00 

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to 

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in 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


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m 


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m 


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m 


m 


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m 


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3 


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to 

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M 


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TO 


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in 

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o 

00 


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00 


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1 - 

o 


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00 
r-i 


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r-\ in 
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CO 
Cl 


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CO 


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in 


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CO 
pH 


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in 
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00 

in 


CO © 
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co m 


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a- 

Ml 


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CO 
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CO 
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to 

l-H. 

rH 




a 


10. 


in 


in 


in 


m 


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in 


m 


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Ml 


Ml 


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m 


in m 


m 


in 


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m 


m 


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m in 


in 


in in 


m 


m 


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m 







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CN 


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m 


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oo 


0) 


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TO 


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m 


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00 


as 


O 
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Cl 


mi in 

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to 

CN 


t-H oo 
CM CM 


as 

Cl 


o 

CO 


CO 


CO 

i 

a 
S 



BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY. — HOURLY VALUES. 







H IN CO ^ iQ 


CD t'- 00 OS O 


i-H CN CO ^ iO 


CO t^. CO OS o 


rH CN CO Mi iO 
CN CN CN CN CN 


co t^ oo oa o 

CN CN CN CN CO 


2 I 
g 












a 

til 


S *>• t~— io co co 

S Mi CN CO CO f-H 

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5 -^ «b lis r|( ^n 


N tH h « N 

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00 r* CO ^ p 

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t— CN CN CN 00 

OS CN CN rf CO 
•^ iO p CO "^i 
iO iO IO iO IO 


i— 1 OS O CO t-- 

OO iO CO MH C3 
CO p Mi cp Mi 

iO iO iO IO iO 


rH CO CO iO CO 
Mi rH CN O O 
Mi Ml CO GO Cp 
IO IO iO IO lb 


CN CN O CN OO 

00 CD O t^ OS 
rH CN Mi rH p 

ib ib ib ib Mi 


oo 

00 




*3 ojd 


JS t^ i-^ o t^ o 

J3 iO oo O © M* 

u os o p p t— 

£ Mi ib ib Mi Mi 


t-- <N rH t^. t-» 
O l^ l"^ O CM 

T 1 T 1 ^ ^P M^ 

ib io io io io 


rH CO CN t-- IO 

O CO -* o t^ 

p p CD p p 

ib io ib ib ib 


IO o o io iO 

CO iO Mi OO CM 
M> p CO Cp M^ 

ib ib ib io io 


CN OS CO iO CO 

IO CO i-H CN IO 
^ Cp cp CO (N 

io io io io ib 


CO i— 1 CO OS CO 
•>. 00 M< 00 IO 

r^-i Cp Cp p p 

iO IO iO M< lO 


o 
o 

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ib 




CO 

CN 


m OI iO «D -* xH 

j- ^f oo os cn cn 
t> p p p os t>- 

£ Mt lb Mi Mi Mi 


(N CO CM CD o 

o io r- o cn 

H H ■rH IO ip 
m O iO iO io 


■^ CO OS OS CO 

O ^ CO i-H 00 

p p p p CO 
»o iO iO iO IO 


CO CO iO iO -N 
t^- CO Mi CO CM 
Ml p Cp Cp Mi 

io ib ib io io 


Oa r-t OS rH IO 
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TRANS. ROY. S0C. EDIN. VOL. XXXIV. 



10 



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OJ 
J3 
O 

a 




c 
— . 


CO 

oa 


to 
00 





CM 

to 

O 


CM 

1- 


CO 




CM 

CO 




CO 
CO 




to 



01 





OS 




m 

CM 

to 


,= 




CO 




-H 

CO 

in 


re- 

to 

to 




to 


in 

CM 

m 


OS 

'-■ 
01 


re- 

OS 

eo 


Cl 
CM 


OS 

to 


10 


os in 

» N O 
CO r-H Cl 


Cl 



Cl 


r^ 

00 

CO 




•a 


>o 


m 


in 


to 


to 


in 


in 


m 


in 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 





in 


in 


m 


in 


•* 


m 


H IT) lO 


m 


m 


OS 


a 

l-H 


CO 


CO 
Cft 
CM 


to 
m 

01 


Cft 

~K 
CO 





to 

O 


en 

CO 





to 




to 
m 



CO 

i-H 


CO 




-r 
-* 


CM 

-v 


to 

to 




CO 

to 


OS 

to 

i.O 


m 

CO 

to 


OS 

1^ 
m 


m 
to 


m 

to 


H 
CO 

in 


CM 

CO 
1M 


1— 1 
00 

CO 




CM 


CM 

CO 

to 




CM 




OS r-H CO 

co in t-H 

CO l-H Cl 


m 

Ml 


eo 

CO 




lO 


m 


m 


m 


to 


to 


in 


m 


m 


in 


in 


m 


in 


in 


in 


m 


m 


■n 


in 


m 


in 


in 


in 


in 


m 


■* 





-Hi m in 





■n 


CO 






1- 


CO 

1— H 

CM 


CO 

01 

CO 


i-H 
Cft 




CO 

to 




— 
00 


CO 


T-4 

c 







01 


m 

CO 





to 
>-. 
•>* 


m 
m 


to 

Cl 

to 


CO. 

in 


OS 
CO 

to 


CO 

in 


CM 

m 
to 


i-H 

1— 1 
to 


to 

CO 

m 


Ml 
OS 
CM 


m 
eo 

CO 


CO 
rH 
Cl 


CM 
Cl 

to 


s 


O -rrl to 
t-H Cl O 

m i-h ci 





i-H 


in 
eo 

CO 






lO 


lO 





m 


to 


to 





in 


in 


10 


in 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


-* 


in 


-iii in in 





in 


t^. 


CD 
V 


1Q 


CO 
CO 




— 
01 


CO 
OS 

1 - 


to 

CO 




to 
to 




as 

CO 


t^ 

-T 


CO 

en 

en 


in 

CO 




■* 




CO 

■CO 


OS 


to 

CM 



-* 


-** 

to 


CO 

to 
m 


CO 

to 


CO 

to 
m 


CO 

-ITI 

to 


OS 


to 


CM 

in 


to 


CO 


tc~ 

CO 


to 

CO 




i-H 

to 


OS 
CO 
CO 


-mi os in 
to Cl 
CO rH CM 


M< 




eo 
in 

CO 




a 


m 


10 


m 


m 


to 


to 


m 


in 


-* 


m 


in 


in 


m 


m 





m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


in 


in 


m 


-* 


■* 


mi in m 


m 


m 


to 




i~ 


s 
01 

CO 


1^ 









to 



OS 

01 

CO 


OS 
CO 


CO 
OS 


CO 




CO 


eo 


eo 





eo 



to 


m 
m 


to 


m 
in 
in 


to 


OS 


eo 


1^ 

CM 

in 


eo 

'CO- 
CM 


in 

CM 

CO 


CO 

in 

01 


OS 



CO 


CM 

OS 


i-~ i-h in 

M< CO 
CO I-H CM 


m 

OS 




Ml 
CO 




t-H 


m 


10 





in 


to 


to 


m 


m 


-* 


m 


m 





m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


in 


m 


m 





m 


m 


m 


m 


^fl 


•Hi 


mi in in 





m 


m 


O 


DO 






CO 


en 

'0 


cr 


in 




-** 

to 



CM 

CO 
CO 


CO 
CM 


1^ 

OS 


to 

CO 




CM 


CO 

to 

CO 




— ' 


1^ 


-H 


CO 
CO 


CM 

OS 

m 


1- 

'0 

m 




CO 

to 


in 

in 
1.-. 


to 


-H 

tc 


m 

-H 

in 




CO 


CO 


•* 
to 

Cl 


CO 

Cft 

m 


OS 


in co i-h 

N CO (N 
CO Cl 


OS 




in 

CO 




a 


m 


in 


in 


in 


to 


to 


m 





-* 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


in 


m 





m 


m 


m 


m 





m 


m 


in 


-Hi 


tH 


mi in m 


in 


m 


-* 




CO 
CO 




to 
— 

CO 


■ 





CO 




00 
to 




Cl 

■crc 
00 


CM 



1^ 

CCj 




in 



CM 


in 

to 

CO 


to 


to 



CO 


l-H 

in 


to 

10 


CM 
SO 



to 

m 


CM 

to 


CM 

to 


OS 

-r 
m 


CI 

eo 


OS 

co- 
ol 


OS 

CO- 
Cl 


CO 
CO 

m 


Cl 

"H 

OS 


mi in co 

CO CO 
Ml O Cl 


i-H 


OS 
Ml 
CO 






10 


m 


m 


m 


to 


to 


m 


m 


-* 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 





m 


m 





m 


m 


in 


in 


m 


m 


^ 


•* 


mi in 


m 


m 


m 


to 
si 


CO 

O 


CO 

CO 


•** 

rH 


to 

01 


CO 










00 

CO 


— 
en 
01 


CM 

1^ 
e& 


OS 






CM 


e» 

CO 




-* 




CO 
-HH 


00 
to 
in 


m 
in 
m 



00 

to 


to 
to 
m 


iti 
to 


in 
to 


m 

m 


eo 

-* 

CO 


OS 

1 


in 

Cl 
CO 


OS 

o 
in 


- 

CO 
OS 


to Cl t-~ 

t^ 00 

Mi O Cl 


Cl 

in 


Ml 

in 

CO 






lO 


m 


m 


m 


to 


to 


in 


m 


■* 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


in 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


Hfl 


-**l 


mi in in 


m 


in 


<N 


<o 






CO 


00 

CM 

I— 1 


01 




CM 

-<* 
O 


CO 





— . 


CM 

CO 


to 

to 

Cft 




in 



CM 


CM 

in 

CO 


CO 

in 
-* 


eo 



to 

m 

"HH 


CO 

to 
in 


01 
to 
m 


eo 
to 


to 

to 
in 


to 

•>* 
to 


to 

to 


to 
m 


to 

CO 


eo 

CO 
CM 


to 
in 

CO 


i-H 

to 
m 




OS 


in ci os 
ci 00 
m ci 


CO 

to 


OS 

in 

CO 






lO 


m 


in 


m 


to 


to 


in 


in 


-«J1 





m 


in 


in 


m 


m 





m- 


m 


m 


in 


10 


m 


m 


m 


m 


xti 


-* 


mi m 


m 


m 


r-l 





Oi 
1^ 
O 


OS 

to 

CO 


■* 

rH 


i-H 


-HH 
O 


CM 

OS 




CO 


CO 

to 

CO 




Cft 


CO 

to 



OS 
rH 


CO 
CO 


eo 
to 


in 






in 
in 


m 
to 

10 


CO 

to 


CO 
CO 

in 


to 


eo 
r>. 

to 


in 



i~ 

CO 


r-~ 

CO 
CM 


t-. 

eo 

CO 




^ri 

to 



eo 

CO 


00 in 
oc to 
m ci 


to 
ro- 


to 

to 
CO 






w 


m 


m 





to 


to 


m 


in 


-* 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 





m 


m 


m 


in 


in 


in 


in 


m 


m 


^tl 


-* 


mi in m 


in 









I-H 


01 


co 


■<* 


in 


to 


t~- 


CO 


os 





l-H 


CM 

I-H 


00 




in 


to 

l-H 




30 


OS 
T-H 



tN 


01 


01 
01 


CO 
CM 


"HI 

CM 


m 

CM 


to 

CM 


Cl 


CO OS 
Cl Cl CO 


i-H 
CO 





12 



BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY.— HOURLY VALUES. 



mH 
00 
00 



Ph 
t> 

O 



CM 

eo 
O 

E-i 

O 
K 
O 
P 

fi 
H 

« 

05 
H 
S 

r3 

o 

cs 
o 
W 









- 


CM 


eo 


■* 


in 


CO 


«>» 


oo 


OS 


o 


a 


CM 

rH 


CO 
rH 


Ml 
tH 


m 


CO 


t^ 


CO 


OS 

r— 1 


o 

Cl 


CM 


Cl 
Cl 


CO 
CM 


Ml 
CM 


in 
CM 


eo 

CM 


to- 
CO 


CO 
Cl 


OS 
CO 


to 

O rH § 

CO eo 2 

3 




a 

OS 


9 


CO 
CO 


■Ml 

i- 


CM 

CO 

: i 


OS 

CO 

oo 


CO 
CM 
CO 


eo 

CM 


OS 

CO.. 


os 

H 


OS 

00 


CM 

O 


Ml 

OS 

m 


'JO' 

m 


00 

o 

CO 


M" 
CO- 
CO 


o 

Ml 

to- 


Ml 
fo- 
CO 


OS 

Ml 


Ml 

CO' 
00 


CM 

O 
OS 


pH 
Cl 

in 


CD 

m 


CD 

m 


Ml 

CO' 
Ml 


ia 
o 
m 


m 
in 
m 


to- 
in 


7-1 
lO. 


CO. 
OS 

o 


-H 
Cl 
CM 


OS 
CO 

l-H 


eo 

Ml 






m 


in 


in 


■«* 


•* 


m 


■* 


in 


m 


m 


in 


m 


in 


m 


rn 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


•a 


in 


in 




id to 


3 


CO 

CI 
CO 


CO 

OS 

rH 


i - 

01 


m 

EO 

eo 


co 
mi 
o 


CO 


CO 

00 
CM 


eo 

F— 1 


o 

00 

m 


eo 

Ml 
CO 


CO 

t^ 

m 


CO 

eo 


Ml 
CM 
OS 


00 
fo- 
to- 


OS 

as 

CO 


Ml 

t— 

CO 


to- 

CM 

CO' 


eo 

Mi 
CO 


o 
i- 


CM 
t— 

Ml 


Ml 

o 

CO 


OS 

Mi 

m 


OS 

m 

Ml 


to- 
co 

m 


SO 

in 
in 


m 

Ml 


t-- 

Ml 
O 


o 


to- 

eo 

CO 


OS 
CO 
CO 


o 

Ml 
Ml 




"^ 'a 




m 


in 


m 


-* 


m 


m 


in 


in 


m 


in 


o 


in 


in 


m 


m 


m 


in 


in 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


uc 


in 


m 




CO 
CM 


03 


in 

M- 
CO 


CO 

o 

CM 


Cl 


in 

CO 


m 

CO 

o 


in 

CM 


CM 
CM 




in 


eo 

Ml 

eo 


o 

OS 

m 


eo 


eo 

CM 

OS 


CO 
OS 

1^ 


t^ 
o 
t^ 


OS 

CO 
CD 


Cl 

'CO' 


OS 

m 

CO. 


CM 

OS 


m 

OO 
Mi 


t^ 

o 
eo 


OS 

Mi 

in 


eo 
m 

M. 


CO 
IQ 


OS 

CD 

m 


lo- 
CM 

Ml 


Mi 
O 


CO 

00 


eo 

lo- 
Cl 


CD 
CO 
CO 


m 

Ml 
Ml 








in 


m 


m 


■<* 


m 


m 


in 


in 


in 


m 


m 


in 


in 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


in 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


o 


in 


in 




CM 


,ti 


O 
to— 

CO 


CO 

o 


eo 

i- 

CM 


CO 
CO 


OS 

o 
o 


CO 
CM 


CO 

oo 

T— 1 


so 


00 

m 


rH 
CO 
CO 


CO 

OS 

in 


00 

OS 

m 


C0C 


00 


CO 

o 


CO 
CD 


CD 
Cl 
CO 


o 
eo 

CO. 


CO 

CO 


lO 

Mi 


CO 


eo 

KO. 

m 


00 

in 

Mi 


00 
Cl 

in 


eo 
m 


Ml 
Ml 


so 

CO 

o 


m 

CO 


o 

.— . 

Cl 


CO 
CO 
CO 


t— 

-Ml 
Ml 








in 


m 


m 


■* 


in 


m 


in 


o 


in 


in 


m 


m 


m 


in 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


ia 


in 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


in 


lO 


in 


in 


in 




CM 




OS 
to- 
Cl 


00 
CM 


OS 

o 

CO 


CO 
CO 
CO 


CM 

CD 
O 


CO 
OS 
CM 


CO 


eo 

EO 


00 

o 
in 


OS 

CO 


o 

CO 


OS 

m 


Mi 
OS 


o 

Cl 
CO 


Gi 


o 

CO 

CO 


CO' 


Ml 

Mi 
OS 


Ml 
00 
CO 


o 

Ml 

Ml 


CO 

CO 


Ml 

ia 
in 


to- 

in 

Ml 


CO. 
Cl 

in 


OS 

to- 
rn 


CO 

CD 
-Ml 


o 

Cl 

o 


00 

in 


Cl 

CO. 
Cl 


CO 
CO 
CM 


© 
in 

Ml 








m 


m 


m 


-* 


in 


o 


m 


m 


in 


m 


in 


m 


IT. 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


in 


m 


in 


m 




O 




CO 
CO 
CO 


00 
01 


CO 

Cl 
CO 


OS 

in 


CO 
OS 


o 
eo 


o 

OO 


i-- 


OS 


Ml 
CO 


CO 
CD 

CD 


o 
i~ 
m 


CO 

CO. 
00 


OS 
CM 
CO 


CM 
<M 
b- 


CD 
CD 


i^ 

CO' 


eo 

Ml 
OS 


CO 
Cl 
CO 


OS 

in 

Mi 


CM 

rH 
CD 


to- 

m 
ia 


m 

m 

Mi 


o 

CO 

in 


in 

CO 

m 


Ml 
CO 
Ml 


eo 

CM 

CD 


o 
in 


CO. 
OS 
Cl 


o 

CM 
CO 


CD 
Ml 
Ml 






n 


lO 


m 


in 


•^< 


■"* 


in 


m 


m 


m 


o 


in 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


in 


m 


in 


in 


m 


m 


m 


o 


in 


UC 


in 


m 


in 


in 






--d 


CO 
OS 
CO 


o 
o 

Cl 


CM 

00 
CO 


os 
i^ 

"CO 


CM 

CO 
OS 


i— i 

CM 

CO 


in 

EC 

o 


CO 

i— i 


-H 

eo 


o 

CO 

eo 


CO 

o 

CD 


OS 

Mi 

m 


o 

CO. 

■CO 


OO 
CO 


CM 
CM 
t^ 


OS 

in 

CD 


CO 

o 

00 


CD 
CO 
OS 


o 
in 

CO 


m 
in 

M< 


to- 

o 
eo 


-H 

in 
ia 


lo- 
in 

Mi 


OS 

Cl 

in 


o 

OO 

in 


Ml 
OS 
Ml 


CO 
Cl 

o 


ia 

-H 


m 

CO 
Cl 


i— 

o 

CO 


in 

Ml 
Ml 








in 


in 


m 


■* 


M< 


m 


in 


in 


m 


in 


m 


in 


>n 


in 


in 


m 


m 


m 


in 


lO 


m 


in 


m 


in 


m 


o 


in 


m 


m 


in 


m 




00 


3 
3 


m 

00 
Cl 


01 

o 

01 


o 
eo 

CO 


o 

EC 
1^ 


m 

OS 


00 

I— 1 

CO 


O 

o 


coo, 
■mi 

r— 1 


oo 


o 

CD 

to- 


Ml 

o 

CO 


eo 

00 

m 


t~ 

eo 

CO 


CM 

CO 
CO 


CO 

to- 


CO 
CD 
CD 


CO 
OS 

t^ 


o 

O0 
CO. 


Mi 

eo 

00 


rH 

in 

Ml 


m 
o 

CD 


CO. 

in 
m 


o 
in 

Ml 


Cl 

m 


CM 

to- 
rn 


CO 

CD 

m 


Ml 

Mi 
O 


CO 

Mi 


CO 
CO 

CO 


CD 
OS 

l-H 


CO 

Ml 

Ml 








in 


m 


in 


-* 


-* 


m 


in 


m 


m 


rn 


in 


m 


m 


in 


rn 


in 


m 


in 


m 


m 


o 


ia 


ia 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


in 




t— 


CD 


© 

to. 
co 


in 

OS 


CO 

00 
CO 


OS 

CO 


o 

CM 

OS 


o 

CO 


|H 

-v 

OS 




eo 

Cl 

mi 




o 

o 

CD 


CM 

m 


in 

CO 


Mi 
CO 

CO 


OS 

t^ 


o 

CD 
CO 


CO 

to- 
to- 


CO 
CM 

CO. 


in 

in 

'CO 


o 
eo 

Ml 


CO 

o 

CO 


CD 

in 
ia 


to- 

Mi 
Ml 


in 

CM 

m 


CD 

SO 

in 


OS 

m 


in 
ia 

CD 


o 

Mi 


eo 

CO 
CM 


CD 
CO 

t—i 


OS 
CO 
Ml 








in 


m 


in 


•* 


■^ 


m 


Tj( 


m 


in 


in 


in 


in 


in 


in 


in 


o 


rn 


m 


m 


in 


in 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 




I— 1 


O 


00 
CO 


-* 

CO 

p— i 


CM 

CO 
CO 


CO 
CO 


in 

OS 
CO 


o 

CM 
CO 


CO 
CO 


rH 

m 


CO 

o 

Ml 


in 

CO 


Ml 
OS 

in 


oo 
o 
m 


eo 

in 

CO' 


m 

CO 


t~ 

CM 


CO 
CO 
CO 


OS 

eo 


CO. 


r-- 

CO 

CO 


in 

Ml 


OS 
CO 

in 


eo 
m 
m 


ia 

Ml 


CO 

^-< 
in 


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© rH 3 
CO co 3 



BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY. — HOURLY VALUES. 



13 



H 
W 

O 

t-f 

w 

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Hi 


us 



US 


to 

US 


OS 
CM 
us 


00 



uo 




-p 

Hi 


CO 

uo 

Cl 


Hi 

a 

Cl 


CO 
to 
CN 




us 
© 




US 


-H 


H< 


Hi 


■* 


HH 


■HH 


Hi 


■HH 


10 


•HH 





US HI HH 


HI 


HH 


US 


Hj| 


HI 


us 


US 


us 


US 


us 


US 


US 


us 


US 


O 


US 


US 


CM 


fit 
B 


Cl 
CO 
Cl 


to 

CO 
OS 


O 

Hi 

CD 


US 

CO 


rH 
HI 





US 
Cl 
to 


Cl 

CO 


O 
CO 

03 


OS 

rH 


CN 

OS 
US 


00 
us 

Cl 


CO CO rH 
HI to CO 
rH OS to 


US 
CO 
OS 


OO 
O 
CO 


O 

Hi 
O 


US 


as 

HH 


CO 


t^ 

cn 

CO 


US 

OS 
HI 


to 


us 


us 

Cl 
US 


OS 
CM 

us 


Cl 

uo 


Cl 

UO 
HH 


CN 

to 

Cl 


-* 
CO 

l-H 


HH 
to 
CN 


US 
US 

© 




O 


HI 


^*i 


^ 


HH 


HH 


HI 


HI 


HH 


US 


HH 


10 


US HH HI 


HH 


Hi 


US 


■* 


■* 


US 


us 


US 


US 


us 


US 


uo 


us 


us 


us 


US 


US 


rH 


a 


HH 
Cl 


to 

CO 
O 


rH 
O 
1^ 


CO 
CO 


CO 
CO 
b- 


HH 
CO 


O 
10 


O 

CO 


O 

CO 

cn 


00 

00 


CO 



CO 


cn 

CO 
Cl 


US HH CO 
HH OS to 
rH OS to 


to 

CM 

OS 


US 

CO 
CO 


OS 

Hi 
O 


to 

US 

US 


to 
CO 

HH 


CO 
CO 





1^ 


to 


US 


to 

cn 

Hi 


Cl 
Cl 
us 


CM 

CO 
US 


CO 

10 


us 
us 

HH 


Cl 

00 

CM 


rH 

CO 

i-H 


CO 
to 
CN 


00 

us 
© 




US 


us 


HI 


HI 


H^ 


HH 


HH 


HH 


HI 


US 


HH 


10 


US HI HI 


HH 


HI 


US 


■HI 


HH 


US 


10 


US 


US 


US 


us 


US 


UO 


us 


us 


US 


us 






rH 


Cl 


00 


HI 


US 


CO 


to 


CO 


cs 





T~i 


Cl 

rH 


CO ■HH US 

j-l rH i-i 


to 


Co 


CO' 
rH 


as 


O 
Cl 


CM 


Cl 
Cl 


00 

Cl 


HH 
Cl 


US 

Cl 


to 

CN 


to 
Cl 


CO 
Cl 


a 




00 


CO 


z 

-Hi 



14 



BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY. — HOURLY VALUES. 



F-i 
W 
H 
Ph 

1d- 

o 

M* 

H 
> 

<l 

H 
02 

> 
O 

< 

H 

M 

3 
W 

w 



CO 

O 
Eh 

P 

w 
o 

D 
W 

O 

n 









- 


CS 


CO 


■* 


m 


CO 


t-» 


CO 


OS 


O 


r-4 


01 


00 


HH 


in 


CO 


i^ 


so 


© 


o 

CM 


I— 1 
CM 


CM 
CS 


00 
CM 


CM 


in 

CS 


CO 
CS 


CS 


oo 

CM 


CO 
CS 


o 

OO 


r-t 
CO 


i 

g 




c 

cS 




CO 

to 


to 

CM 

CO 


so 


o 

f-H 


o 

CO 


to 

CM 


to 

CO 
CS 


CS 
CO 


CS 

c- 
oo 


OO 

o 


to 
m 


c~i 


CO 
M 
CM 


CO 
Ml 


Ml 
Ml 
CO 


CO 


CO 

to 
in 


00 

m 


01 

o 
m 


CS 

© 

CO 


© 
CS 


1- 
cs 


CO 

CO 

CO 


© 

CO 

CO 


CO 
CO 
CM 


CO 

CD 
r-t 


m 
i- 

© 


CO 

CO 


CO 
00 

to 


o 

CO 

-v 


OS 

in 


i— i 
m 




H 




W 


m 


in 


in 


in 


m 


m 


Ml 


■* 


Ml 


Ml 


m 


in 


in 


in 


in 


in 


m 


m 


in 


in 


in 


m 


in 


m 


in 


m 


-H 


Ml 


-H 


Ml 


in 




LZ b(l 


-S 


CO 

-r 


I-H 
CM 

CS 


CM 


OS 
OS 


CO 

m 

CM 


CM 

to 

CO 


o 


co 

CM 

CO 


1— 1 
os 
l^ 


CO 
OS 

o 


in 

CM 

o 


OS 
CO 
CS 


CM 


CM 

to 


CO 
CO 

to 


© 

CO 


m 


© 

CO 

in 


m 

-H 


CM 

OO 
CO 


in 

CM 


o 

CS 

CO 


© 

CO 


-CD 
CM 
-* 


to 

CO 


Ml 

in 




CM 

© 
l~ 


© 
CD 


r-t 
CD 
CO 


in 

© 


CM 

Ml 




a -a 


t— ( 


in 


in 


m 


■>« 


in 


in 


m 


-* 


"T 


Ml 


in 


in 


in 


in 


m 


m 


in 


in 


m 


in 


m 


in 


in 


m 


m 


in 


in 


Ml 


Ml 


MH 


Ml 


in 




CO 


.c 
o 


m 
Ml 


o 

01 


rH 

CM 


01 

o 


CO 
CM 


CO 

in 

CO 


in 

o 


CO 
CM 
CO 


so 

o 

CO 


© 

© 


© 
o 


1-* 
oo 

CM 


CM 

00 
CM 


o 

CO 

to 


in 

oo 

CD 


CO 

© 

CO 


CO 

so 
in 


-r 
CO 

m 


CO 

i^ 

Ml 


m 

CO 
CO 


CO 

o 

CS 


to 

CO 


Hi 

o 


in 

CS 


CO 


in 

CD 


CO 


O 

o 


© 
1~ 

CO 


c-j 

CO 


© 
Ml 
© 


Ml 








in 


in 


m 


in 


m 


in 


m 


-* 


Ml 


Ml 


in 


in 


m 


in 


in 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


» 


Ml 


Ml 


Mi 


Ml 


m 




CM 


0) 

J3 


CM 


Ml 
W 
CS 


00 
CM 


CO 

■ -. 
o 


m 

as 

CM 


OS 

mi 

CO 


CM 

OS 

o 


CS 

CO 
CO 


CO 
Cl 
CO 


M< 

in 
o 


© 

© 


CO 
00 
CM 


CI 


p 

Cl 
SO 


CO 
CO 


Ml 


CM 

'CD' 

if) 


Cl 

mi 
m 


i^ 


as 

CO 


i— i 

CS 


CO 
CO 


Ml 

© 


r^ 

Ml 


CM 

as 


o 

CO 
rH 


Hi 

c 


Cl 

co- 

CO 


CO 

CO 


1^ 

Ml 


CS 

rH 

o 


to 

Ml 








m 


m 


in 


m 


in 


in 


m 


-rX 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


m 


in 


in 


in 


m 


m 


in 


in 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


in 




CS 


CD 

-fC 


CO 
in 

M* 


o 

CS 


CO 
CM 


CO 

a 


as 
o 

CO 


CM 

CO 


CO 

so 

I-H 


— .. 

1 
CO 


co 


CO 
CM 

© 


Ml 

CO 
OS 


rH 
© 
CS 


i-O 
01 
01 


so 

o 

CO 


CO 

CO 


m 

CM 


in 

CO 

m 


Cl 

00 

m 


co 
Ml 


© 

CO 
CO 


r-t 

CS 


© 
© 

CS 


© 
co 


-H 


Ml 
O 
CS 


in 


CO 

■-- 
o 


cr- 
eo 


O 

CD- 
CD 


Ml 
Cl 

Ml 


CO 

o 
o 


eo 

Ml 






H 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


in 


m 


m 


in 


in 


m 


m 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


in 




O 
CM 


o 

a 
a 


M< 

Ml 


CO 

7! 


o> 

i- 

CM 


to 
o 


CM 

CO 


CO 


00 


CO 
CM 

CO 


in 

00 

oe 


00 

o 


00 
OO 
CO 


CM 

CO 

CO 


CM 


00 

© 
in 


Ml 

in 

CD 


CS 


CO 

os 


© 
m 


-* 

CO' 
Ml 


CM 

© 
CO 


CO 
CO 
CM 


CO 

© 

CM 


m 

co- 
co 


IQ 

c 


CO 
CS 
CM 


CO 

in 


CO 

00 

o 


© 


00 
CO 

CO 


Mi 
CO 
Ml 


CO 

© 
© 


CO 
Ml 
rH 








m 


m 


O 


in 


m 


in 


m 


•* 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


m 


m 


in 


in 


in 


in 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


CO 


m 




© 


9 

cs 


o 

CD 

-r 


CM 


CO 

to 

CS 


OS 

o 


OS 
CM 


to 

OS 
CM 


CO 


i-H 

CO 
00 


Ml 
Ml 
CO 


m 
© 


OO 

to 
oo 


Cl 


CO 

oo 

Cl 


in 

CO 

m 


eo 

M< 
CO 


CO 


-CD 
EO 

Mi 


CO 

i^. 
in 


© 

CO' 

Mi 


CO 
CO 


o 

Ml 
CM 


CO 
CO 

Cl 


o 

CO 

CO 


o 

rH 


m 

CS 


m 

in 


OS 

1^ 

o 


m 

CO 

-CD 


CO- 
CO 


O 
Ml 

Ml 


o 
© 


o 

Ml 






►H 


in 


m 


in 


in 


in 


m 


m 


Ml 


M< 


Ml 


Ml 


m 


in 


m 


in 


in 


in 


m 


in 


m 


in 


in 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


CO 


in 




CO 


1 


i— I 

eo 

Ml 


ci 

m< 

d 


CS 

so 

CM 


OS 

so 

o 


OS 
CM 


CM 


00 

o 

CM 


CO 
CO 


m 

H- 
CO 


© 


CM 

OO 


CO 
CS 


CO 

CO' 
Cl 


in 

CO 

in 


to 

CO 
CO 


Ml 
CM 


© 

CO) 
Ml 


01 
CO 

in 


CM 

CO 
Ml 


in 

CO 
CO 


o 

Ml 
CS 


Mi 
Cl 


CM 

co 


CS 

Ml 


© 

CO 
CS 


in 

Ml 
rH 


Ml 
CO 

o 


CO 

-CD 


CO 


© 
CO 

Mi 


eo 
oo 
© 


© 

CO 








o 


m 


in 


in 


m 


in 


m 


-H 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


in 


m 


in 


in 


m 


m 


m 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


CO 


m 




t^ 


0) 


Cl 
CO 

Ml 


CM 

CO 
CS 


OS 
CM 


OS 

so 

o 


CO 

oo 

CM 


CO 
CM 


o 
to. 
CM 


OO 
CM 

00 


Ml 

CO' 


© 

m 


© 


so 

CM 


CO 

CM 


CO 

Ml 

in 


OS 

CO 

to 


CO 


o 

o 


m 


© 

CO 

Ml 


o 

00 
CO 


© 

Ml 
CM 


-CD 
Cl 


CO 


Cl 

-H 


i— i 

Ml 
CS 


m 

Ml 
rH 


IC 

o 


to 

C— 

CO 


CO 
CO 

CO 


Ml 

Mi 
Ml 


00 

o 
© 


00 
CO 

i— i 








m 


m 


in 


in 


in 


in 


m 


Ml 


Ml 


Mi 


Ml 


in 


in 


in 


in 


in 


in 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


in 


in 


m 


m 


m 


-H 


-tl 


Ml 


Ml 


in 




CD 


1 


so 

CO 
Ml 


in 

CO 

Ol 


CO 

so 


so 

OS 

o 


CO 
CM 


OS 

o 

CM 


Cl 


-CD 

c 

00 


Ml 
i-C 

CO 


rH 


CM 

O 


so 

Cl 


o 

Cl 
CM 


Cl 

oo 
in 


rH 

CO 
CD 




CM 

m 


CO 
CO 

m 


to 
© 

HP 


Ml 
CO 


© 

CD 
CS 


CO 

CM 


o 

CO 


CO 

o 

Ml 


rH 
Ml 
CS 


© 

in 


Ml 
Ml 

O 


Ml 

'CD 
CO 


CD 


CM 

CO 

Ml 


r-t 

as 

OS 


co 




_ 




in 


in 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


in 


in 


m 


m 


m 


in 


in 


in 


in 


in 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


IQ 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


CO 


in 




in 

I— < 


— 


Ml 

CO 


mi 

CI 


Cl 


m 
os 

o 


in 

CM 


o 

CS 


i~ 

CS 


00 

o 

CO 


SO 

CO 

•-JJ 


OS 
rH 


© 
© 
CO 


CM 


cr- 


CO 
Cl 

in 


CO 
CS 

to 


Ml 


o 

CO 

m 


CO 

Cl 

in 


r-t 

© 

M< 


CO 

CD 
CO 


CM 


© 

CO 

CS 


CO 

CO 


CO 
00 


in 
m 

CS 


in 

r-t 


CS 

CO 

o 


in 

-Hi 
CO 


CJ3 
CO 
CO 


CM 

r-t 
Ml 


r-t 
CO 

© 


CO 

rH 








VO 


m 


m 


in 


m 


in 


in 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


in 


in 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


IQ 


in 


m 


m 


m 


Mi 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


m 




Ml 


V 

A 


1 - 


m 

OS 
Ol 


to 

Cl 


os 
o 


CO 
CO 
CM 


OS 
r-l 


as 

OS 

01 


in 

o 

CO 


1^ 

00 
CO 


1-- 

CM 

CM 


© 

CO 

to 


Ml 

so 

Cl 


-f 
o 

Cl 


OS 

o 
m 


© 

CO 


Ml 
CS 


'CD 

CO 

in 


CC 
CM 

m 


© 

OO 

-V 


© 
to 

CO 


© 

© 

CM 


1^ 
Cl 


CO 
CO 


CO 

s->- 

CO 


in 

CS 


Ml 
r-t 


CO 

Cl 

o 


1^ 

eo 


m 

IQ 

eo 


CO 

Hi 
Ml 


CM 
00 
O 


in 

CO 

r-t 








in 


m 


in 


m 


in 


m 


m 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


in 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


Ml 


Mi 


Ml 


Ml 


m 




CO 
I—) 


o 


CO 

so 


CO 
r-t 

CO 


in 

cc 
CM 


CO 

o 


OS 
CS 


o 
in 

I-H 


CM 

CO 


00 

o 

00 


r-i 
CO 


m 
in 

CM 


Ml 
CO 

to 


co 
in 
CS 


CO 
OS 

rH 


CO 
CO 
Ml 


CO 

CO 
CO 


00 


CO 

Ml 

in 


Ml 

-H 

in 


OS 

-n 


as 

to 

CO 


CO 

o 

CO 


in 

00 
CS 


© 
r- 

(CO 


CO 


m 

CD 
CS 


to 
to 


O0 

o 


SO 


CO' 


CO 
IQ 

Ml 


CO 

CO 
iH 


CO 








ITS 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


in 


m 


in 


m 


in 


m 


in 


m 


in 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


in 


m 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


in 




CS 

i— I 




-1 

1Q 


© 

CO 


CO 
CM 


CO 

H 

r-H 


OS 
CO 


in 

-SI 


in 

CO 


CS 
CO 


in 

CO 
CO 


CO 
CM 


O 
© 

in 


m 
in 

CM 


Ml 
CS 


to 

00 
Ml 


CS 

Ml 
CO 


Ml 


00 
Ml 

m 


CO 

Ml 

in 


CO 

o 

IQ 


m 

CO 


CM 

CO 


in 

CO 
CM 


CO 


in 

cr- 
co 


CS 


CO 

CD 


Ml 

O 


in 
eo 

'CO 


*-- 

CO 


in 

in 

Ml 


OO 

as 


Ml 
rH 








IQ 


in 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


in 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


m 




rH 


a) 


CM 

DO 
Ml 


o 

03 
PS 


CO 
Cl 


rH 


»— i 


-* 
to 


CO 

to 

CO 


00 


in 

CO 


CO 
CO 


CO 
Ml 

m 


CO 

CO 

CM 


01 
CS 


Cl 

Ml 


© 

Ml 

to 


to 

Ml 


© 
in 
m 


'CD 
00 

in 


rH 

m 


CO 
CO 

CO 


CO 
CO 

CO 


OS 

oo 

CM 


o 

00 
CO 


© 
i^ 

CO 


CS 
CS 


CS 


© 

Ml 

o 


in 

CO 


so 


© 
1^ 
Ml 


CO 
CS 
CS 


r-t 

in 

r-t 








m 


m 


m 


in 


in 


m 


in 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


in 


m 


in 


in 


in 


m 


m 


H- 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


m 




O 


a) 

a 


so 
■* 


CO 
CO 


CM 

Cl 


oo 

so 


CO 

in 

I-H 


o 


to 

CO 
CO 


CM 

CO 


00 

CO 

oo 


Ml 
Ml 

CO 


© 

© 

m 


© 

© 
i—i 


CO 

Ol 
01 


CO 

in 

Ml 


CO 

Ml 

to 


Ml 
CO 


00 
CO 

m 


CO 
CO 

in 




CO 

CO 

CO 


Ml 
CO 


es 

00 
CS 


'CD 
'CD' 
CO 


CO' 
CO 


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Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


CO 


8 


-40 

CM 


in 

o 


m 


O 

-40 


CO 

m 


OS 

o 


in 

01 

eo 


CO 
r— 1 
1^- 


OS 
Ol 
i-H 


OS 
CM 

CO 


m 


CM 
CM 

-x 


-40 
00 


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in 

CM 


eo 


CO 

Ml 
CO 


'CO 
Ml 


m 

CO 


OO 
CO' 
CO 


in 

CO 
OS 


CO 
rH 


m 

00 

o 


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Ol 


IQ 
OS 

o 


© 

CO 

as 


© 

Ml 
O 


-40 

T-i 


T-i 

00 

T-i 


O 

oo 

tn. 


In 
tn. 
In. 


CM 

OS 
CO 


CO 

IO 
OS 




pa 


m 


m 


U3 


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-* 


in 


i.O 


HX 


o 


m 


o 


m 


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m 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


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Mi 


Ml 


in 


m 


in 


m 


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m 


m 


m 


Mi 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


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os 
© 

1 


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e 


co 

i - 


-* 

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rH 
OS 

in 


CO 
CO 

o 


CO 

01 

CO 


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CO 


co 

CO 


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CO 


in 

CM 


l-H 

-x 

-x 


o 
o 
oo 


Ol 
Ol 


CO 


m 
eo 

CO 


CO 
O 

Ml 


-40 

in 

00 


1— 

1- 

m 


OS 
O 
OS 


Ml 
Ol 
l-H 


eo 

■Sj 

o 


oa 

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o 

rH 


© 

m 

OS 


© 

Ol 

o 


'40 

T~^ 


CO 
CO- 
OI 


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O 
CO 


© 
Cl 

CO 


CO 
Ml 


m 
in 
oa 




s 


m 


'■ 


m 


IX 


^x 


in 


in 


-X 


m 


in 


in 


m 


-x 


m 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


m 


in 


m 


in 


Mi 


m 


m 


m 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


i— i 


c5 




m 

oo 

CM 


o 

00 

o 


.— i 
o 

CM 


OO 

-* 


CO 
CO 

•n 


OS 
101 

© 


CM 

CO 

eo 


?5 

00 

CO 


-x 
CO 

o 


OS 

eo 


eo 


eo 

>o 

-x 


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m 
oo 


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Ol 


m 

OS 


Ol 
Ol 

CO 


Xi 
I ~ 

co 


in 

lO 

eo 


■ o 
m 


CO 
CO 


fi 
Ml 
r—i 


'40 
CO 

O 


'40 
1 


CO 

© 

T-i 


© 

OS 


Ol 

oo 

OS 


Cl 
Cl 


Mi 
Cl 


CO 
CM 

CO 


r-i 
OO 
CO 


00 

CO 
Ml 


© 
in 

OS 




n 


m 


in 


in 


"* 


*x 


m 


m 


-r 


m 


m 


in 


m 


-x 


m 


Ml 


M< 


Ml 


M< 


Ml 


Ml 


m 


m 


m 


m 


Ml 


Ml 


in 


in 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 


Ml 






- 


01 


00 


■* 


in 


co 


f» 


00 


OS 


o 


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m 


CO 


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CO 


03 


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CM 


CO 
01 


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m 

CM 


© 
CM 


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CO 
Cl 


OS 
CM 


© 

CO 


rH 
CO 


re i 

a 



BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY. — HOURLY VALUES. 



27 







r-f 


CM 


CO 


■H^ 


in 


to 


t- 


CO 


cs 


o 

1—1 


rH 


Cl 


CO 


-* 

rH 


m 

T-i 


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t^ 


CO 


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o 

CM 


rH 
CM 


Cl 
Cl 


CO 
Cl 


Ml 
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in 

<M 


to 

CM 


CM 


to 

00 OS O rH S 
CM CM CO CO g 


i 




o 
mi 

m 


© 

-H 
CO 


os 
l- 
o 


CD 
lO 


CO 




os 

Cl 

m 


in 


in 
o 
i^ 


in 

m 

CO 


1^ 

CO 
CO 


CM 

rH 


CO 
OS 


o 


CO 
CO 

CO 


in 


o 

CO 

Mi 


in 
in 


CO 


CO 

o 

Hi 


Cl 

3 


CO 

CO 
CO 


Cl 

o 

CO 


to 
o 
to 


in 


CO 

Mi 

m 


OS 

Ml 


i— 1 
O 

m 


o 

OS 
CO 




Mi 


Ml 


ITS 


to 


in 


in 


m 


m 


to 


in 


to 


in 


-* 


UO 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


^3 

u bo 




Cl 

CI 


CO 
CO 
CO 


o 

CD 
CO 


os 

CO 

o 


CO 


OS 


in 

a-. 

CO 


Hi 
CO 

l^ 


CO 

CO 


i— t 
to 
m 


o 

rH 

CM 


OS 

-ti 
o 


rH 

CD 
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o 

Ol 
Cl 


to 

■Hi 


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H< 


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CO 

m 


m 

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Mi 


CO 
IQ 
CO 


m 

Mi 


CD 
CO 

in 


o 

CO 
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o 

to 

to 


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Ml 


CM 

Mi 

in 


m 


Ml 
CO 
Mi 


OS 

to 

CO 


CM 

rH 
Ml 




-* 


HI 


m 


m 


in 


in 


m 


m 


to 


in 


m 


m 


-* 


to 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


in 


to 


m 


to 


m 


m 


in 


to 


m 


m 


CO 
CM 


0> 


in 

i— i 


OS 

CO 
CO 


CO 
CO 
CO 


CO 

CD 


CM 

CO 


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Cl 


in 

CO 

CO 


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l^ 


CM 

CD 


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00 

in 


in 

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CO 

o 


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CO 

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Hi 


CO' 
CO 

to 


m 

co 
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in 

CO 


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m 


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CO 


CO 

to 

to 


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to 


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m 


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m 


CO 
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CO 
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CO 


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r-l 
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in 


w 


m 


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m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


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m 


o 


m 


in 


m 


to 


m 


m 


to 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


CM 
CM 


s 

rd 


" 


CO 

CO 


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rH 
CO 


H^ 

CD 
CO 


CO 


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Cl 


OS 

CO 


OS 

00 


CO 
CO 


CO 
OS 

m 


Cl 

Cl 


CO 

Hi 

o 


CO 

OS 


CO 
rH 


CO 
CO 

■* 


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CO 
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CO 

t-- 

to 


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o 

to 


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to 

CO 


o 
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m 


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CO 


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to 

in 


to 

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to 


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m 


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CO 

in 


to 
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Mi 


CO 
CM 

Ml 


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rH 
Ml 




►—1 


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in 


in 


m 


m 


m 


to 


in 


m 


m 


m 


HI 


to 


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in 


m 


to 


to 


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m 


m 


m 


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to 


to 


in 


in 


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CM 


to 


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CO 


CO 

oa 

CO 


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CO 
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CO 
CO 


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CO 


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o 

00 


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to 


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CM 


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o 


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to 


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to 

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to 


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in 

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CO 


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CO 
to 


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o 

IQ 


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Mi 

m 


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in 


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Mi 


CM 

CO 
Ml 


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r-i 
Ml 






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m 


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m 


m 


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to 


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m 


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m 


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CM 




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CO 

to 


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CO 


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CO 


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CD 


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CO 


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to 


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CO 


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in 


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CO 

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o 

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m 


m 


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to 


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m 


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m 


m 


m 


to 


m 


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m 


m 


to 


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m 


to 


m 


m 


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ja 


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to 

CO 


o 

CD 

as 


CO 
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to 
m 

CD 


to 
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CO 


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CO 

Hi 


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CM 

CD 


O 

CO 


to 

CO 

CO 


CO 

to 


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CM 
Cl 


CD 

o 


CO 

OS 


Hi 

o 


CO 

m 

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CO 
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to 

CO 

to 


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in 

to 


CO 

Hi 

CO 


to 

Mi 
M< 


m 

Ml 

m 


Cl 

CO 


Mi 

to 

IQ 


Cl 

OS 

Mi 


CO 
CO 

m 


o 

CO 

in 


r-i 

CO 

Ml 


00 

Ml 


m 
o 

Ml 






Ml 


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to 


m 


in 


m 


m 


to 


in 


m 


in 


m 


Hi 


to 


in 


m 


m 


to 


m 


in 


m 


to 


in 


m 


m 


m 


to 


m 


m 


CO 

»— i 


J3 


CO 
IQ 

to 


CO 
CO 
CO 


CO 

o 

Cl 


CD 
-H 
CO 


OS 
CM 


CO 

Cl 

Hi 


CO 
00 

m 


Hi 

CO' 
CO 


in 

CO 
CO 


■>* 

CO 

to 


T-H 

CM 

CM 


CO 

o 


os 

CD 
OS 


-Ti 
l~ 

o 


o 
in 

-Hi 


CO 

CO 

Mi 


Cl 

rH 

to 


co 

m 

UO 


CO 
Mi 
CO 


rH 
CO 
M< 


CO 

CO 

to 


to 

to 

CD 


Ml 

CO 

to 


Ml 
CO 
Ml 


to 

CM 

m 


in 

CO 

m 


CD 
CO 
Mi 


m 

OS 
Ml 


OS 

CO 




M 


«* 


"t 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


in 


in 


m 


m 


Hi 


m 


m 


m 


to 


to 


m 


o 


in 


to 


to 


to 


in 


m 


m 


m 


in 


r^ 


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o 

CO 

to 


CO 
CO 
CO 


CO 
rH 


CD 
CO 

CD 


o 
o 

CO 


as 


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m 


o 
o 


in 

CD 
CO 


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to 


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Cl 


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Hi 

o 


in 

OS 


o 


to 

CO 

-Hi 


CO 
CM 

Hi 


o 

o 

to 


CO 
CO 

to 


CO 
Ml 
00 


OS 

i— t 

Mi 


CD 
Cl 

to 


CD 
Ml 
CO 


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CO 

to 


Ml 


to 

r-i 

m 


CO 

m 


Ml 
OS 

Mi 


m 
oo 

Ml 


r-t 
OS 

CO 






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-H 


m 


m 


in 


m 


in 


in 


to 


m 


m 


in 


•* 


m 


in 


•Hi 


in 


to 


m 


m 


in 


m 


in 


IQ 


IQ 


in 


to 


in 


m 


to 


o 


O! 

O 

to 


-V 

CO 
CO 


CO 
lO 

T— 1 


CO 
CO 

CD 


to 
o 

CO 


-Hi 
CO 

Hi 


CM 

CO 
ITS 


CO 

o 

CO 


CO 
00 

CD 


to 
in 
to 


in 

Cl 


CM 

m 

o 


OS 

Hi 
CO 


Cl 

CO 

o 


CO 
CO 
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O 

CO 
Mi 


Mi 

OS 

Mi 


CO 

l^ 
m 


00 

M- 
CO 


m 

r-i 


CO 
Cl 

m 


CO 

Mi 

to 


<M 

m 


CO 


CO 

m 


o 
in 
m 


Ml 

OS 

Ml 


Ml 

!-H 

m 


CO 
OS 
CO 






"5* 


Hi 


o 


in 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


Hi 


to 


m 


to 


to 


in 


to 


m 


m 


in 


to 


U0 


m 


m 


to 


in 


o 


>o 


■d 


lO 
CO 

o 


to 

CO 
CO 


OS 
rH 


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CD 


m 

CO 


in 

CO 

Hi 


■*« 

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in 


CO 

os 
i~ 


OS 

os 

CO 


■■* 

to 
to 


o 

I-- 

Cl 


CO 

CO. 
O 


Hi 
Hi 
OS 


rH 
O 


to 

CM 

Hi 


oo 

CO 
■Hi 


CO' 
CO 
Mi 


CO 
CO' 

in 


o 

to 

CO 


in 
o 

Mi 


Mi 

to 


m 

Ml 
CO 


CO 

i^ 

to 


r-i 

CO 

Mi 


CM 
CM 

in 


Ml 

in 
in 


Mi 

Oi 
M- 


CO 
CM 

in 


CM 

OS 
CO 






m< 


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1Q 


lO 


m 


in 


in 


in 


in 


m 


m 


to 


Hi 


in 


m 


m 


m 


to 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


to 


m 


m 


to 


m 


m 


Ml 


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o 


o 

IQ 
1Q 


CI 
CO 

CO 


CO 

OS 

o 


CO 
CD 


CO 
CO 


o 

Hi 
Hi 


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in 


OS 


CO 

cr. 

CO 


to 
to 


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o 

CO 


in 

CO' 

O 


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CO 

os 


CO 

o 
o 


CO 

r-i 


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CO 
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CO 

oo 

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to 
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to 


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in 

CO 


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O 
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CO 

to 


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to 

CD 


CO 

oa 

to 


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CO 

Mi 


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in 


to 
in 
in 


Mi 
OS 

Mi 


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m 


r-i 
OS 
CO 






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■* 


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m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


■**1 


m 


m 


in 


m 


to 


m 


m 


m 


to 


to 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


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IQ 


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CO 


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CD 

o 


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m 


to 

CO 


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o 

to 


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CO 


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CO 

to 


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CO 


m 

CO' 

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oa 


CO 
CO 
CO 


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CD 


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in 

CO 


to 

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CO 


CO 

o 

to 


to 

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CO 


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m 


co 

CO 
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rH 
<M 

in 


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m 
in 


CO 
CO 
Mi 


CM 
CM 

m 


00 
00 
CO 




hH 


■* 


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m 


m 


m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


in 


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m 


m 


m 


to 


to 


to 


m 


to 


in 


to 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


CM 


£j 


CO 


CO 

CO 
CO 


lO 

o 


m 

CO 

1Q 


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CO 


CO 

m 

Hi 


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o 

to 


m 

OS 

i^ 


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CM 


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to 


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CO 
CO 


t-. 

os 

o 


m 

CO 

os 


o 
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to 
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M 


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CO 

o 


in 

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o 

to 


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CO 


o 

CO 


o 

to 


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m 


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in 
m 


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OS 

Mi 


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CO 

in 


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OS 

CO 






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va 


in 


m 


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to 


m 


to 


m 


m 


m 


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m 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


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m 


m 


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m 


m 


r-l 


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CO 
CO 


o 

CO 

o 


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-* 


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OS 

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CO 


in 

CO 


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to 


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H- 
CO 


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CO 

rH 


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Hi 
OS 


CO 

CO 


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CO 
CO 


m 

Mi 


rM 

to 

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o 

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to 


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to 

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CO 


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to 


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CO 


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o 

CO 


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m 


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m 


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to 
m 


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O 

to 


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CO 

m 


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OS 

CO 




d 

1— I 


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in 


m 


m 


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m 


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m 


m 


m 


m 


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■* 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


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m 


m 


in 


in 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


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Mi 


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CO 


rH 

o 
o 


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1Q 


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CO 

-* 


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Hi 


m 

Hi 


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CO 

1^ 


o 


co 

OS 

to 


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CO 


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CO 


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to 

OS 


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Hi 
CO 


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CO 


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00 

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CO 


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l~ 

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o 

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CO 


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os 

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Ml 

CO 


CO' 


CD 

rM 

m 


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rH 

in 


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CO 

m 


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00 
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o 


to 

CO 

CO 




d 


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u- 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


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in 


m 


to 


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-* 


m 


m 


to 


in 


to 


m 


m 


m 


m 


to 


in 


m 


to 


in 


m 


OS 




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to 
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CO OS O I-I 3 

cm cm co co g 



28 



BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY. — HOURLY VALUES. 



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co 


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to 


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o 


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to 


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CO 

CO 


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o 


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to 
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COO 
CO 


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CO 
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o 
as 


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CO- 
CO 


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us 


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CO 

00 


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M 


to 

CO 

oo 


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Cl 


to 

CO 


CM 
CM 

CO 








us 


US 


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US 


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US 


US 


US 


US 


us 


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US 


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us 


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Cl 


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CO 


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CO. 
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Ml 


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CO 


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us 


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oo 


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CO 
r-t 


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CO 




- 




us 


us 


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US 


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US 


US 


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US 


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US 


US 


us 


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us 


us 


us 


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us 


US 


US 


US 


o 


us 


US 


us 


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us 
mi 
to- 


co 


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to 
to 


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us 


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Cl 
CO 


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us 

00 


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us 


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us 

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r-i 


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to 
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CM 


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CO 


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CO 


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Ml 


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o 


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CO 

00 


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CO 


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CO 

CO 








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l-H 


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us 

t-» 


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to 

1^ 




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us 

to 


to 


OS 

Cl 
CO 


00 


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o 

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to 

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us 


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us 

CO 


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CO 
Cl 


oo 

i-H 


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CO 
CO 


to 

US 

o 


CO 

o 

CM 


as 

OO 


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© 

CO 
i-H 


to 

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CO 


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© 

CO 


OS 


CO 

o 


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CO 

ec- 


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Ml 


us 

CO 


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00 


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Mi 


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CO 


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Cl 


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r-t 
CO 
CO 








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us 


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us 


US 


US 


us 


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us 


us 


US 


US 


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us 


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r— 1 


a 


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us 


to 
us 


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co 


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co 


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to 

to 


US 

US 


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CO 

O0 


CO 

O0 


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CO 

us 


CO 

to 

CO 


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CO 

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o 

Cl 


1^ 
00 


CO 

us 
o 


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o 

CM 


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os 

CO 


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US 

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oo 


l-H 
CO 
CO 


o 

CO 


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~K 

OS 


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CO 

o 


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o 


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Mi 


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Ml 


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oo 


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CO- 
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CO 


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CM 


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as 

r-t 


00 
<M 

CO 








US 


m 


US 


US 


us 


us 


US 


us 


US 


us 


us 


us 


US 


~K 


us 


us 


us 


US 


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US 


us 


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US 


US 


us 


us 


us 


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us 


us 


us 


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CM 




mi 
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co 

co 


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to 

to 


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US 


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CO 


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CO 


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us 


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us 

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CO 








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us 


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CO 


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80 


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to 


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CO 


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CO 
Cl 


© 


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CO 
CO 


00 

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© 

cos 


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o 


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CO 


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CM 

i-H 


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© 

00 


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CO 

Mi 


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as 


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CO 








to 


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us 


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US 


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US 


US 


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Ml 


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1^ 


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I - 


to 

CO 

co 


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to 


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CO 

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CO 
O0 
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CO 


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to 

CO 


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CO 

Cl 


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o 

CM 


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o 


1^. 


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oo 


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us 
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00 

CO 

© 


CM 
CM 

CO 


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co 


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OS 


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CO- 


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CO 

© 


CO 

CO 
r-i 


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Cl 


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o 
© 

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oo 

CM 


CO 

iM 


CO 

CO 








US 


m 


us 


US 


us 


us 


us 


US 


US 


US 


us 


us 


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Ml 
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us 
1^ 


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CO 


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CO 

to 




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CO 
CO 


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os 

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1>- 

00 


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CO 


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CO 


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CO 


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© 


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OS 


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CO 

o 


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H 


CO 


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I-. 
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rH 

l~ 

Ml 


CO 

o 

Ml 


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oo 

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00 
rH 


CO 








us 


lO 


us 


US 


us 


US 


US 


US 


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US 


US 


US 


us 


•^tl 


us 


us 


US 


US 


us 


us 


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us 


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US 


us 


us 


US 


us 


US 


us 


us 




CO 


3 


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to- 


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co 
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CO 
OS 

co 


CO 
CO 

to 


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CO 


00 

CO 
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CO 

CM 


co 
1^ 


us 

CO 

us 


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CO 


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Cl 


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Cl 


CO 

© 

CO 


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CO 

o 


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i-H 


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Cl 


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© 

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CO 


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CO 
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o 


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01 


us 


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CO 

Cl 


CM 
CO 

M< 


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oo 


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CO 
CM 


us 

O0 


CO 
CO 








US 


IO 


US 


to 


us 


us 


US 


us 


US 


us 


US 


us 


us 


-X 


us 


US 


US 


us 


US 


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us 


us 


Mi 


us 


us 


us 


us 


US 


us 


US 


US 


IO 




t*. 




us 
Ml 


to 


us 

US 

1-* 


CO 

o 


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00 

to 


CO 
CM 


oo 

CO 


co 

Cl 


us 

CO 


CM 

us 


CM 

CO 
CO 


CO 
CM 


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OS 
1^ 


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o 


OS 

o 


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00 

CO 


US 

1^ 

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os 

OS 

o 


OS 

to 

CM 


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OS 
CO 


us 
os 
as 


us 

CO- 


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© 


l^ 


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o 


as 

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CM 


Cl 
US 

Ml 


l-H 

o 

Mi 


OS 
O0 
CM 


oo 


o 

CO 








us 


o 


us 


US 


US 


us 


us 


us 


US 


US 


us 


us 


us 


>* 


us 


IO 


US 


us 


us 


us 


us 


Ml 


Ml 


us 


us 


us 


US 


US 


US 


us 


US 


US 




<© 




M 

t— 


i—l 


us 
us 

1- 


o 
o 


oo 
to 


o 

CO 


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us 

CO 


us 

CM 


us 


us 

Cl 

us 


00 
CO 


co 

CM 


rH 
CM 
CM 


co 


CM 
CNI 

o 


oo 
o 


Cl 
CO 


00 
Cl 


OS 

CO 


Ml 

us 

CM 


i-H 

© 

Ml 


o 
o 


co 

oo 

CO. 


CO- 
CO 

o 


oo 

^H 


o 


Cl 

CO 
Cl 


Mi 
Mi 


CM 

o 

Ml 


oo 

Mi 
Cl 


US 
00 
r-t 


us 
o 

CO 








us 


in 


us 


us 


US 


us 


US 


US 


US 


us 


US 


US 


us 


■* 


us 


us 


US 


us 


us 


US 


US 


US 


Ml 


US 


US 


US 


US 


us 


US 


uo 


us 


us 




o 




US 


o 


CO 

-T 


-1^ 
f— ( 
1-- 


us 

CO 

to 


o 

CO 


os 
us 

CO 


Cl 
CO 

Cl 




to 

US 


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as 

CO 


CO 

(-» 
CM 


to 

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DO 


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o 


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to 
o 


CO 
Cl 

CO 


o 
oo 


us 

coo. 
o 


Ml 
CO 
CM 


to 

Ml 


i-H 
US 

o 


us 

Cl 
OS 


OO 

o 


US 

© 

i-H 


Ml 

o 


CO 
CM 

Cl 


oo 

00 

Ml 


o 

Ml 


to 

Ml 
CM 


CM 

CO 
r-t 


IO 

o 

CO 








us 


m 


US 


US 


US 


US 


US 


US 


US 


US 


us 


US 


US 


* 


US 


us 


US 


US 


US 


us 


US 


US 


Ml 


US 


US 


US 


US 


US 


US 


us 


us 


US 




T* 


to 

3 


■a 

us 


a 


us 

1 - 


1^ 

1 ~ 


CO 
QO 

to 


us 


us 
eo 


00 

'£> 
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oo 


l-H 

us 


CO 

OS 
CO 


l~ 

Cl 


H 

0O 
Cl 


CO 
OJ 
l~ 


us 
o 
o 


to 

to 
o 


OS 

r-H 
00 


1^ 

w 

co 


o 


o 

CM 

CM 


US 
CM 

Ml 


Ml 

o 


Cl 
CO 

CO- 


CM 

CO 

o 


CO 

o 


US 
CM 


Cl 
Cl 
Cl 


0O 
Ml 


CO 

rH 
Ml 


us 

Cl 


us 

CO 
r-t 


OS 

o 

CO 








US 


ta 


US 


us 


us 


us 


US 


US 


US 


US 


US 


US 


us 


~f 


us 


US 


US 


us 


us 


US 


US 


us 


MI 


us 


us 


US 


>o 


US 


us 


US 


us 


IO 




CO 


9 

.e 


B0 

•o 
1 - 


00 

o 


US 

r- 


IO 

Cl 


OS 

CO 

to 


CO 


CM 

00 

CO 


CO 
Cl 


us 

CO 


•** 
o 
us 


co to 
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■* CM 


CO 

00 
Cl 


o 

CO 


CM 

o 
o 


CO 

to 
o 


CO 


CO 

CO 


US 

CTC 

o 


CM 
CM 


CO 

l-H 

Ml 


s 


I— 
OS 


00 

CO 

o 


er- 

© 


OS 
CM 


i-H 

os 


o 

OO 
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CM 

Ml 


o 
to 

Cl 


00 
r-t 


OS 

o 

CO 








us 


IO 


US 


us 


us 


US 


us 


US 


US 


us 


US 


us 


us 


-f 


us 


us 


US 


us 


us 


US 


IO 


US 


Ml 


uo 


US 


us 


us 


US 


us 


us 


US 


us 




CN 


1 


CO 


03 
O 
1^ 


US 


M 


OS 

CO 

to 


us 

to 


OS 

CO 


CO 
CM 


o 

CO 


OS 
OS 


CO 


CO 

co 

Cl 


-X 

Cl 


'■O 

1—1 
CO 


to 

OS 
OS 


CO 

to 
o 


00 

7-P 

00 


CO 
CM 

CO 


o 


00 

o 

CM 


1"^ 

as 

CO 


Cl 

1— 1 


CO- 

CT- 


1^ 

M< 

a 


eos 

CO' 


OS 

CO 


© 

Q 
CM 


00 

00 
Mi 


Mi 
Ml 
Mi 


01 

I-. 

Cl 


© 

as 


to 

CO 






M 


US 


o 


11- 


us 


us 


us 


US 


us 


US 


US 


US 


us 


us 


-X 


-* 


us 


us 


us 


US 


US 


US 


US 


■* 


US 


US 


US 


US 


us 


us 


uo 


US 


us 




H 


3 


CM 
00 


IH 


US 

CO 

1 - 


CO 

uS 

1 - 


OS 

to 




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o 


00 

Cl 


a 

Cl 


00 

o 
us 


to 

CO 


CM 

p 

oo 


i-H 

to 

Cl 


OS 

Cl 

oo 


to 

OS 


CO 

to 
o 


OS 

OO 


oo 
ec- 


e 


CM 
CM 


00 

CO 


o 

-t< 


r-4 
Cl 

CT- 


CO 

us 

o 


Ml 
i-H 


to 

Ml 


Cl 
Cl 


us 

0O 
Ml 


Ml 

us 

Ml 


Ml 
CO 
CM 


r-t 

o 

CM 


US 
<M 

CO 








us 


IO 


us 


us 


US 


us 


us 


us 


us 


us 


US 


us 


US 


-f 


■* 


us 


US 


us 


US 


US 


US 


us 


Mi 


us 


US 


US 


US 


us 


US 


UO 


US 


US 


j 






- 


CM 


co 


<* 


us 


CO 


t^. 


00 


OS 


o 


- 


Cl 


oo 


-V 


US 


to 


1^ 


00 


09 


o 

CNS 


l-H 

CM 


Cl 
CM 


CO 
01 


Ml 
Cl 


IO 

Cl 


to 

CM 


lo- 
ci 


CO 
Cl 


OS 
CM 


© 

CO 


rH 

CO 


i 

2 



BEN" NEVIS OBSERVATORY.— HOURLY VALUES. 



33 







- 


Cl 


CO 


-h 


in 


eo 


t-» 


O0 


09 


o 


- 


01 


CO 


-p 


IO 


to 


t— 


CO 


en 


o 


CM 


CM 

01 


00 
CM 


-H 

CM 


in 

01 


to 

CM 


tH- 

Ol 


OO 
CM 


en 

CM 


o 

00 


r-l 
CO 


•3 


a 
s 




OO 

1— 1 


CN 

Ol 


05 

00 

Ml 


m 

IQ 


CO 
CO 


CO 
CO 

CO 


00 

01 


00 

CO 
CO 


CM 

to 

CO 


in 
o 

CM 


en 

i- 


o 

CM 


eo 


CO 

m 

CO 


en 

vO 
CM 


IO 
CO 

o 


30 

-Hi 


o 

Ol 

to 


30 

■en 
to 


to 

to 


to 


r-l 

■to 


to 

■en 

-H 


eo 

CO 


eo 
to 
CM 


10- 

CN 


CO 

rH 

UO 


m 

00 
Mv 


en 

CO 

CO 


CO 

CO 

eo 


o 

CO 
CO 


CO 




lO 


io 


m 


• O 


in 


VO 


in 


vO 


in 


in 


in 


vO 


in 


in 


IO 


IO 


in 


in 


IO 


m 


in 


m 


iO 


in 


m 


•n 


UO 


uO 


m 


in 


m 


IO 


S-a 


s 


o 

OS 

r—i 


t- 

CO 

00 


CO 

•JO 
vO 


CO 

o 


CO 
VO 
CO 


«r)i 
CO 


00 

Ol 

CO 


to 

OO 


en 

01 

00 


o 
o 
i— i 


CO 
CO 

Ol 


i-H 

o 

rH 


-H 
Ol 


IO 


CO 

en 

o 


IO 
CM 


CO 

en 

iO 


o 

-H 

to 


Ol 

1^ 


to 

00 
IO 


eo 

to 


i-H 
CO 

m 


CM 
CM 

-H 


CM 

CM 
CO 


•n 
to 

rH 


o 

en 
eo 


Ml 
Ol 
IO 


Ml 
C-- 

CO 


o 

CO 

M- 


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to 

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in 

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to 

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CO 




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vo 


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m 


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in 


m 


m 


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m 


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m 


IO 


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in 


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m 


IO 


IO 


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m 


IO 


m 


in 


m 


IO 


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CO 
Mi 


CO 
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o 
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to 

vO 
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to 


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to 

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CO 
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to 

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CO 

en 

CM 


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to 


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to 


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to 


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in 


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to 
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m 


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in 


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in 


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CO 
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to 


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m 


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m 


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m 


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VO 


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in 


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m 


m 


m 


m 


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m 


to 

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00 
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CO 
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00 


en 

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o 


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co 


en 
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Ol 


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en 

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to 


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lo- 


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en 
in 


IO 

to 


CO 
vO 


IQ 
p 

Ml 


CO 
OO 


r-H 

en 


■to 
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00 


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r—l 
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to 

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Ml 
Cl 

Mi 


CO 

en 

CM 


r— i 

eo 




a 


VO 


vO 


VO 


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lO 


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vO 


in 


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in 


m 


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in 


o 


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vO 


m 


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uO 


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T-l 


CM 


CO 


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m 


to 


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en 


o 


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m 


to 


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in 

Cl 


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on 

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rH 

eo 


w 



ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXIV. 



34 



BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY.— HOURLY VALUES. 











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IN 


CO 


-* 


m 


to 


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o 


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CO co 2 




c 
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to 


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co 

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in 


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m 


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BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY. — HOURLY VALUES. 



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43 



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co- 
co 


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CO 

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to 


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CO 


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to 


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to 


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CO 


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CO 
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BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY.— HOURLY VALUES. 



47 



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m 

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2 
3 

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m 


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1—1 
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48 



BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY. — HOURLY VALUES. 





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TEAKS. R<X¥. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXIV. 



a 



50 



BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY. — HOURLY VALUES. 



03 


oo 


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m 


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00 

Hi 


CO 

<* 


CO 
CO 

-H 


70 
Hi 


m 

-H 


t-- 

H< 

Hi 


CO 
71 

Hi 


CO 

1— 1 

Hi 


■Hi 

Hi 


Hi 

CO- 
CO 


CO 

Jr- 
CO 


-H 

in 

CO 


tr- 

eo 


70 


00 

so 

Cl 


Hi 

Hi 
Cl 


It 
Cl 

Cl 


00 

It 


CM 


cr- 

IT 


co 

It 


in 

CO- 


CC7. 
O 
Cl 


CO 
CM 
CM 


Hi 

in 


HI 

CO 
CO 


CO 


CO 


eo 


CO 


eo 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


eo 


CO 


CO 


eo 


eo 


CO 


eo 


CO 


eo 


CO 


eo 


eo 


70 


CO 


eo 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


70 


CO 


eo 


CO 


eo 


a 


p 


m 


o 

CO 


in 


o 


■ 7 


CO' 
CO 




o 


m 

rH 


o 

CO 


in 

-H 


o 




o 

CO 


in 


© 


17 




CO 


in 

Hi 


CO 


10 


O 

CO 


in 

-H 





in 

r-t 


0. 

CO 


in 

Hi 





O 

CO 


p 





p 


© 

CO 






eo 


C7 


eo 


CO 


•*! 


-t> 


-V 


~v 


'- 


m 


in 


in 


es 


CO 


CO 


CO 


1 - 


it- 


t— 


l~ 


00 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO- 


CO- 


OS 


CO- 




<N 




CI 


r-H 
CI 


CI 


Cl 

CM 


CM 
CM 



o 

y. 

t— 1 

o 
< 

a 

EH 

W 
W 

o 

rS 

<=1 

C-r 

H 



TEMPERATUBE-tfA#R. 



HOUKLY READINGS OF DRY AND WET BULBS. 



The readings are corrected for instrumental error only. 

During the first five Months there are several breaks in the record, especially during the 
night. In the case of the Dry Bulb these missing hours have been filled in, the interpolated 
entries being marked by brackets. Double hourly means are given, the upper or Observed 
Mean being the average of the observed readings only, and the lower or General Mean that 
of the total entries for the hour. In the case of the Wet Bulb for these five months no 
interpolations have been made. The Means when given are therefore those of the observed 
readings only and are comparable with the corresponding Observed Means of the Dry Bulb. 

From the beginning of May 1884 onwards the record is practically continuous: any 
interpolated values either of Dry or Wet Bulb are bracketed but are included in the 
Means. 



TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXIV. 



52 



BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY. — HOURLY VALUES. 





« 




3 




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CO 
CO 


CO 
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77 
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CO 
77 


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71 




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to 


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17 
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71 


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71 


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CO 


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71 


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71 


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1— 1 


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71 


71 
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71 


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77 


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CO 


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77 


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co 


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1 


-* 
Cl 


■«< 


1 


UJ 

Cl 




Cl 


1 


eo 

CO 


eo 


1 


3 


M< 
CO 


1 


CM 
CM 


1 


1 






_ 


e 


1 - 


OS 


CN 


co" 


us 


us 


10 


US 


■* 


^ 


es 


O 


to 1 


OS 


71 


^T 


OS 


t^ 


57 


,_, 


O 


Mi 








mV 


OS 


r~- 


cT 


OS 


Ml 


eo 




q 


CC 

71 


71 


10 

7_l^ 


1 - 


s 


CL 


1 - 


CO 
CM 


a 


Ml 

CM 


us 
CM 


e> 


CM 


eo 

CN 


CM 
CM 


to 

rH 


ep 


us 

71 


eo 

CM 


•>* 
eo 


CO 
7^ 


us 

71 


O 
CM 


OS 

CM 


1^ 

CO 


CO 


us 

CO 


os 

71 


M 
CO 


Ml 
Cl 


CM 
CM 


US 
CM 


us 

CM 






!-< 


CM 


CO 


■<* 


us 


to 


1— 


CO 


OS 


O 


- 


71 


BO 


<* 


US 


to 


tH. 


CO 


OS 


§ 


cl 


71 
Cl 


eo 

71 


CN 


US 
CM 


to 

CM 


1- 

Cl 


CO 
Cl 


OS 

Cl 


s 


r~1 

eo 


CO fc 

a h] 
O u 


»" 2 

w ■ 

a u 



BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY — HOURLY VALUES. 



53 



en 
oo 
oo 



o 



P5 

3 

D 

pq 



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« 





































































. to 


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rH 


ITS 


to 


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o 


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in 


CO 


l-H 


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o 

CM 


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tM 


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CM 


to 

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CO 
Ol 


OS 
CM 


o 

CO 


l-H 

CO 


OS -tl 
O H 


*C3 


OS 




i 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 




I 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


>> 


CO 


i— t 


r— 1 


co 


o 


OS 


OS 


o 


o 


o 


o 


CO 


to 


1-1 


to 


t^ 


ia 


r~^ 


CO 


1^ 


in 


OS 


ia 


-jo 


o 


CM 


o 


eo 


Cl 


CO 


OS 


o 


l>. 




fi 


r*. 

CM 


-H 
CI 


CO 
CM 


o 

CI 


OS 


rH 


rH 
CM 


o 

CO 


CM 


CM 


CM 
CM 


Oj 


o 

CO 


CO 
CM 


o 

CM 


CO 
r-i 


o 

Cl 


CO 
CM 


Cl 


CM 


m 

CM 


-H 
Ol 


CO 
Cl 


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CO 


to 

CO 


Ol 

CO 


OO 

eo 


CO 

OO 


Cl 

CO 


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CM 


10- 
CM 


CO 
CM 


in 

CM 


i 


. 














t^ 


IN 


to 


to 




t^ 


CO 


OS 


l-» 


-H 


oo 


o 


!>. 


lf» 


CO 


00 


OS 




m 


CM 


CO 


CO 


OS 


-* 


_1 






5S 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1^ 

CI 


OS 

Cl 


-r 
Cl 


to 

Cl 


1 


Ol 
Cl 


CO 
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Cl 
Cl 


CO 


CO 

7-^ 


in 

Ol 


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CM 


CO 


00 
Cl 


CM 


c 

Cl 


00 

01 


1 


CO 
CO 


CO 
CO 


o 

00 


00 
CO 


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CM 


CO 
CM 


CO 
CM 


1 


1 


£ 


>. 


CM 


OS 


CI 


to 


in 


05 


1^ 


Cl 


CM 


CM 


ST 


o 


i-H 


CO 


o 


00 


o 


OS 


o 


-* 


CO 


rti 


o 


o" 


OS 


o 


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CO 


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OS 


CO 


^ 


CO 


s 


A 


CO 
CM 


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CI 


l^ 


o 

CI 


ic— 


rH 


1^ 

CI 


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CM 


CM 


to 

Cl 


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CM, 


CO 
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to 

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CO 

i-H 


ia 

r-t 


in 

Cl 


CO 
Cl 


o 

CO 


CO 
CM 


-* 
CM 


O 
Ol 


OS 
Cl 




CO 

co 


to 

CO 


00 


oo 

00 


Ol 


CO 
CM 


CM 
CM 


in 

CM 


in 

Ol 




d 














m 


i-H 




rH 






CO 


CO 




to 


CO 




CO 


CO 




CO 


t>- 




^H 


CO 




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00 




CO 






CO 
CM 


j£ 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


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Ol 


OS 

Cl 


1 


Cl 


1 


1 


CO 
Cl 


CO 

Cl 


1 


CO 


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Cl 


1 


00 


eo 

Cl 


1 


1— 1 

Cl 


to 

<M 


1 


CO 

00 


CO 


1 


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oo 


m 

Ol 


1 


CO 
CM 


1 


1 


>, 


CM 


o 


5 1 


m 


m 


cT 


is 


i-H 


c? 


rH 


o 1 


^h7 


CO 


CO 


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O 


CM 


oT 


00 


CO 


to 1 


r-t 


t^ 


o 1 


o 


00 


<r7 


oo 


CO 


to 1 


00 


CM 


CO 




Q 


lO 
CM 


to 

CI 


to 

r— 1 


o 

CI 


l>r 

r-t 


p-H 


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CI 


OS 

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Cl 

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Ol 


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CM, 


Cl 
Cl 


'CO 
Cl 


CO 
Cl 


OS 

l-H 


CO' 
r-^ 


01 


-H 
Cl 


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CO 


a 


a, 


Cl 


CO 
Cl 


CO 


t-r 

oo 


CO 
CO 


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00 


Cl 


CO 
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eo 

CM 


CO 
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in 

Ol 




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OS 


o 




IQ 






t^ 


to 




OS 


oo 




o 


CO 




CO 


CO 




t^ 


CO 




OS 


CO 




1— 1 








£ 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


' 


ta 

CM 


OS 
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1 


Cl 


1 


1 


Cl 


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Ol 


1 


CO 
rH 


CO 
Ol 


1 


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eo 


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Cl 


i 


rH 
Cl 


m 

Ol 


1 


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eo 


CO 


1 


-H 
00 


CO 
Cl 


1 


r* 

CM 


1 


1 


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a 


Ol 


o 


c? 


OS 


CO 


i— 1 


OS 


o 


^7 


o 


ICC? 


r~ 


CO 


in 


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o 


riT 


o 


o 


In 1 


in 


m 


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00 


00 


co 1 


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co 1 


CO 


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CI 


CO 
CI 


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o 

CI 


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rH 


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CI 


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eg 


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tM 


o 

CM 


CO 


1^ 
CM 


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Ol, 


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CO 


HI 

Cl 




Cl 


Cl 


00 


00 
CO 


CO 
CO 


Ol 


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00 


to 

Cl 


CO 

o5 


CO 
CM 


co 

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m 

Ol 




« 














Ni 


>a 




to 






CO 


o 




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CO 




CO 


© 




CO 


CO 




lo- 


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00 








£ 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


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i 


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1 


1 


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CO 
Ol 


1 


t-- 

rH 


t^ 

CM 


1 


Cl 

CO 


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CM 


1 


r-t 

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00 
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1 


co 


o 

CO 


1 


U-S 
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1^ 

Cl 


1 


rH 
CM 


1 


1 


CM 


b 


CM 


o 


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F-H 


<M 


o 


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ET 


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CO 1 


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CO 


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c? 


en 


rH 


CO 


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CO 


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CO 


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CO 


m 




o 
oo 


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CI 


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rH 


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m 

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CO 


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CO 


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o 


00 


m 


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£ 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


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1 


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00 


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CM 


rJ4 
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Si 


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CO 


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O0 


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00 


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CM 


m 

CM 


1 


1 


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o 


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rH 


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CO 


CO 


o 


CO 


a> 


rH 


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o 


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o 


1-H 


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w 


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CO 


m 




« 


o 

O0 


ia 

CI 


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CI 


o 

CM 


t~~ 


ITS 
CM 


to 

tM 


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CO 
CM 


CM 
CM 


- 

0! 


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l-H 

Cl 


o 

CM 


to 

r-t 


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rH 

tM 


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CO 
CM 


rH 
CM 


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01 


Ol 

Cl 


1^ 
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'X' 
00 


i-H 

CO 


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tM 


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CO 
CM 


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CM 


in 

Ol 


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Ol 




d 














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o 


to 


to 


CO 


CO 


oo 


l>. 


CO 


m 


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o 


CO 


00 


CO 


1>. 


Cl 


to 


CO 


CO 


CO 


to 


i-H 






os 


&» 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


US 

CI 


to 
CM 


CM 


OS 
Ol 


tM 

CM 


o 

Cl 


CO 
Cl 


o 

Ol 


OS 
rH 




in 

Cl 


ia 

Cl 


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m 
CM 


rH 
tM 


a 


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CM 


to 

00 


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CO 


CM 


o 

oo 


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00 


i-H 


CM 


CO 
CM 


1 


1 


rH 


G 


o 


OS 


1Q 


1^ 


OS 


rH 


o 


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o 


CM 


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m 


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00 


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o 


r^ 


o 


O 


rH 


CO 


1^ 


eo 


CM 


o 


eo 


ia 


1^ 


10- 


m 


m 




o 

CO 


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Ol 


CO 

I— 1 


I— I 

CI 


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CM 


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to 

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OS 
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CM 
CM 


o 

Cl 


CO 
01 


OS 


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l^ 


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Cl 


in 

Cl 


00 


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CM 


CM 


CO 
Cl 


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CM 


to 

00 


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00 


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oo 


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00 


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CM 
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lo- 

CM 


in 

CM 


m 

Ol 




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rH 


o 


to 


^ 




CO 


o 


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ia 


in 


OS 


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00 


to 


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CO 


00 


CO 


CM 


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CO 


CO 


l-H 


00 






OO 


fc 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


Cl 


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OS 
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1 


o 

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i-H 


oo 

r-t 


t^ 


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CO 
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CO 

CM 


CM 


TH 

CM 


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CM 


01 


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00 


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oo 


00 
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i-H 

00 


rH 

00 


rH 
CO 


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CM 


in 

CM 


1 


1 


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sA 


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o 


CO 


in 


CO 


o 


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o 


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CO 


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a 


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CI 


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CM 


r^ 


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Cl 


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l-H 


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CO 
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CO 
CM 


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CM 


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CM 


01 


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CO 
00 


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rH 


CO 
CM 


oo 


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CO 


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tM 


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CM 


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CM 




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m 


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r- 


£ 


1 


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1 


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m 


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in 

01 


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CO 


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oo 


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CO 


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CM 




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CO 


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1 


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1 




1 


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tM 


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CO 


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CO 
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CO 
00 


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CO 


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00 


CO 

oo 


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CO 


CO 


in 
CM 


1 


1 


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p 


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CO 


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m 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


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CO 


CO 


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CO 


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CO 


o 


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l-H 


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m 






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BEN NEVIS OBSERVATORY.— HOURLY VALUES. 



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